Hello, friends! The idea behind this thread is to compile a comprehensive list matching EB settlements with their current names or with names of present cities that are more or less in the same place cities. It would allow, for instance, to easily find your favourite EB settlement in
Google Earth, or plan your holiday trip.
Some are pretty obvious - Roma = Rome, Side = Side, etc. but others might be more interesting and not everyone might know them - like Ecbatana = Hamadan, and such.
I would therefore like to encourage you to post as many matching couples as you know of. Some interesting info on the liquistics or meaning of the city name would also be much appreciated.
And here is what we have so far...
Adrumeto = Sousse, Tunesia
Ak-Ink = Budapest, Hungary
Alexandreia = Alexandria (or Al Iskandariyah in Arabic), Egypt
Alexandria-Ariana = Herat, Afghanistan
Alexandria-Eschate = Khujand (in the Fergana valley), Tajikstan
Alexandropolis = Kandahar, Afghanistan*
Ambrakia= Arta, Greece
Ammonion = Siwa, Egypt
Ani-Kamah = Gyumri, Armenia*
Ankyra = Ankara, Turkey
Antiocheia = Antioch (or Antakya i Turkish), Turkey
Antiocheia-Margiane = Merv, Turkmenistan
Arbela = Irbil, Iraq
Ariminium = Rimini, Italy
Armavir = Armavir, Armenia
Arpi = Foggia, Italy
Arretium = Arezzo, Italy
ArsÚ = Sagunto (or Sagunt in Catalanian), Spain
Artaunon = Heidetrńnk-Oppidum near Frankfurt a/M, Germany
Ascaucalis = Kalisz, Poland
Athenai = Athens, Greece
Atiqa = Destroyed around 800AD, Tunisia
Augila = Awjila, Lybia
Aventicos = Avenches, Suisse
Axum = Axum, Ethiopia
Baktra = Balkh, Afghanistan
Bocchoris = ruins near Pollenša (Mallorca), Spain
Bononia = Bologna, Italy
Burdigala = Bordeaux, France
Byzantion = Istanbul, Turkey
Caern-Brigantae = Aldborough near Bidborough, England
Camulosadae = Colchester (?), England
Capua = Santa Maria Capua Vetere or Capua, Italy
Carali = Cagliari, Italy
Carna = Qarnaw, Destroyed (?) in the Ramlat al-Sab`atayn desert, Yemen
Carrodunum = Krakˇw, Poland
Cassemor = Southend-on-sea, England
Cenabum = Orleans, France
Chach = Tashkent, Uzbekistan*
Charax = Madaniyah, Iraq*-Near al Basrah
Chersonesos = Sevastopol (?), Ukraine
Damaskos = Dimashq, Syria
Darioritum= Vannes, France
Diospolis-Megale/Thebes - near Luxor and al-Karnak, Egypt
Ekbatana = Hamadan, Iran
Emporion = Empuries, Spain
Gabai = Isfahan, Iran
Gader = Cadiz, Spain
Gandhara = Islamabad, Pakistan*
Garama = Sabha, Lybia*
Gawajam-Heruskoz = Dortmund
Gawajam-Kimbroz = Vorbasse, Denmark
Gerrha = Near the ruins of fort Uqair, Saudi Arabia
Halikarnassos = Bodrum, Turkey
Hibis = Kharga, Egypt
Hierosolyma = Jerusalem, Israel
Ictis = Exeter (?), England
Ippone/Hippo Regius = Annaba, Algeria
Iuvavoaeta = Salzburg, Austria
Kallatis = Mangalia, Romania
Karmana = Kerman, Iran*
Kart-Hadast = Tunis, Tunisia
Khiva = Xiva, Uzbekistan
Kophen = Kabul, Afghanistan
Korinthos = Corinth, Greece
Kirtan = Destroyed and rebuilt as Constantine, Algeria
Kydonia = Chania, Greece
Kyrene = Destroyed, ruins near Shahhat, Lybia
Lepki = Wadi Lebda, Al Khums, Lybia
Lixus = north of Larache, Morocco
Lilybaeum = Marsala, Italy
Marakanda = Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Maryab = Ma'rib, Yemen
Massilia = Marseille, France
Mastia = Cartagena, Spain
Mediolanum = Milan, Italy
Memphis = Ruins near Cairo
Meroe = Deserted, in the middle of nowhere, Sudan
Mesana = Messina, Italy
Mitilene = Mitilini, Greece
Naissos = Niš, Serbia
Nikaia = Iznik, Turkey
Nisa = Ashgabat, Turkmenistan*
Numantia = destroyed, but the ruins are near Soria, Spain
Olbia = Zhovetnovoye, Ukraine* S of Mikolaiv
Opiana = Sitpur, Pakistan-closest major city is Multan*
Pantikapaion= Kerch, Ukraine
Paraitonion - Marsa Matruh, Egypt
Patala = South of Hyderabad x East of Karachi, Pakistan*
Patavium = Padua, Italy
Pella = Pella, Greece
Pergamon = Bergama, Turkey
Persepolis = Persepolis (UNESCO World Heritige Site) about 70km SW of Shiraz, Iran
Petra = Petra, Jordan
Petridava = Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine
Phraaspa = SE of Tabriz, Iran*
Pselkis = El-Dakka, Egypt?
Ptolemais-Theron = Aqiq, in the vicinity of Massawa, Eritrea
Ratae Corieltauvorum = Leicester, England
Rhegion = Reggio di Calabria, Italy
Rhodos = Rhodos, Greece
Roma = Rome, Italy
Sabata = Shabwa, Yemen
Sala = Chellah, on the outskirts of Rabat, Morocco
Sardis = Sart, Turkey
Segesta = Sestri Levante, Italy
Segestica = Sisak, Croatia
Seleukeia/Ctesiphon = Baghdad, Iraq*
Serdike = Sophia, Bulgaria
Side = Manavgat, Turkey
Siga = Raghgoun, Algeria
Singidunum = Belgrade, Serbia
Syracosai = Siracusa, Italy
Tamane = Bayhan al Qisab, Yemen
Tanais = Rostov-na-Donu, Russia*
Taras = Taranto, Italy
Tarsos = Tarsus, Turkey
Tingis = Tangier (or Tanja in Berber and Arabic), Morocco
Tolosa = Toulouse, France
Trapezous = Trabzon, Turkey
Tylis = Plovdiv (?), Bulgaria
Ubar = Iram (?) The lost city in the Rub' al Khali desert (Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Yemen)
Vesoncio= Besanšon, France
Ynys-Mon = Anglesey, Wales
Zadraka(r)ta = Sari, Iran
*for approximate locations, the nearest large city is listed
I will update the list as more cities will be identified.
Thank you for your co-operation!
------------------------- And here you can find an amazing tool by Teleklos Archelaou that points out all the EB cities in the Google Earth!
Over the top of my head:
Capua = Naples (I think?), Italy
no, Naples already exixted in the EB timeframe from the VIII century B.C.
It was Nea-polis (means new-town) founded by greek colonists of Calkide and Eretria in the Eubea isle. It was at first an emporion on the isle of Ischia, called Pitekusa, then it was founded a small town on the shores, called Partenope, then it was founded a new nucleus (if i well remember by the Cumans) called Nea-polis (new town) the old nucleus was called palepolis (old town). So at the time of EB timeframe naples was already 500 years old...
I dont complain the fact that nea-polis was not included in the EB map, cause Capua was more important during the EB time frame, while neapolis was more a cultural centre, and it will be politically important only in the middle age. Think that Cicerone, called Capua "Altera Roma" that means: "the other Roma"
now, regarding Capua, it is a complicated story, and since i have some friends in Capua, it's better i explain that, cause they could get angry...
actually there are 2 capuas:
1) Capua 2) Santa Maria Capua Vetere (vetere is from latin and means "old")
Both are inherent to ancient Capua for different motivations. And bot their inhabitants claim to be the real Capuans.
the true is this:
After being sacked and destroyed (i dont remember, Vandals? Visigoths? it was during the barbarian invasions anyway) the inhabitants of Capua abandoned the town, and founded a new town some kilometers towards the river Volturnus.
This new Capua was called exactly Capua as the old. it's the number 1) in my list above.
This new town actually is a beautifull (altough small) medieval town on the river Volturnus. The medieval palaces was build with a lot of things from the ruins of the abandoned Capua, so you see there in the Palaces, Marble Heads and columns from the anphiteatrum and the temples of the abandoned Capua. Wonderful little town, full of medieval story.
But what about Santa Maria Capua Vetere (number 2 in the list above)?
well, after ancient Capua was abandoned, it layed wasted for centuries, untile in the medieval age, when a church was build on the location, and a village start to grow around the church, and then a town. So now we have S.Maria Capua Vetere, built in medieval age on the ruins of the ancient Capua.
So now, you have this 2 towns.
Capua (1) who was built in medieval age along the Volturnus by the original hinabitants of Capua, but it is not located on the real ancient Capua.
Santamaria Capua Vetere (2) who is built on the exact ruins of the ancient Capua, but its hinabitants are not the descent of the real Capuans...
So if you want to speak with (in theory) the descents of the ancient Capuans you must to go to Capua.
If you want to see all the ruins of the ancient Capua (there is a wonderfull anphiteatrum, a well preserved Mitreum an a lot of other things) you must go to Santa Maria Capua Vetere...
But then... that's not true 100%, cause also in the Capua (1) there are a lot of ancient things used in the medieval palaces, cause as i sayd Capua (1) was founded by the original Capuans.
So if you want to locate the exact geographical site, you have to write "Santa Maria Capua Vetere"
while if you want to locate the real continuation of ancient capua, you have to write "Capua"
your choice (i think in both cases, the hinabitants of the other town will get angry...just joking)
Thank you so much for your entries, friends, it is going better than I have expected!
However, could somebody submit equivalents of the celtic and germanic cities in the central Europe?
For instance, I must admit that being Czech and historian by education on top of that, I have been unable to indentify which archeological site is to be "Eburonum"...
@ Obelics - That was a wonderfull and well written explanation, grazie amico!!!
Ratae is short for "Ratae Corieltauvorum", which is Leicester in England.
Two others I'm not sure about are "Camulosadae" which 'may' be Colchester, and Ictis, which 'may' be Exeter (the Romans called these "Camulodunum" & "Isca Dumnoniorum" respectively), both in England. Wikipedia gives only their Roman names, but says that both existed as Celtic towns before the Roman invasion, although the Celtic names are not given. I will give deference to any Celtic historians out there!
Ynys-Mon is Anglesey in Wales, which is also still the Welsh name for the island.
Budapest comes from the union of three cities: Obuda, Buda and Pest.
Obuda, meaning old Buda, was the settlement built by Arpad and the first Hungarians over the remains of the Roman settlement of Aquincum. It served as his capital and as the main base for Hungarian raids into the rest of Europe. It was originally called Buda, and was either named after one of Attila's relatives, or some early Hungarian that came over with Arpad (the early geographic names of Hungarian places founded by the nobility seem to be based on people's names. Csepel island in the middle of the Danube, for example, is supposed to be named after Arpad's stableboy). When during the Mongol invasions, the new settlement slightly north was built, also called Buda, this settlement became known as old Buda. It was never actually wiped out entirely, but it lost most of it's importance after the Mongol invasions.
Buda, was the name of the castle and settlement which later grew around it, which was built on the hills north of the original Buda during the Mongol invasions, for protection. It later became the capital of Hungary after the court moved from Pozsony (Bratislava) and today is still the section of Budapest where all the aristocrats and rich people live.
Pest, a settlement built on the right bank of the Danube, across the river from the other two. It was founded during the original arrival of Hungarians as well, but unlike the other settlements, this seems to have been founded by commoners, since it's not named after anyone. Pest means brick oven in old Hungarian (like what they baked bread in), and so it's either named after those ovens, or some Slavic word meaning cave (disputed theory, nobody really knows the right answer). Pest later grew up to be a big market town, and effectively became the industrial center of Hungary. All the industrial workers and (today), most of the new immigrants live there. Plus, it's where I'm from!!
In the 1800's, the chain bridge and several bridges over the Danube were built, so the three cities were merged into the present city of Budapest.
Even though the city was merged a long time ago, it's still common today to say you're either from Buda, or Pest, when meeting someone. Also, it's often called Budospest (Stinky Pest) by people in the countryside who don't like the 'big city'.
However, could somebody submit equivalents of the celtic and germanic cities in the central Europe?
The Germanic people did not found towns before the Middle Ages. Artaunon, or Arctaunon, is a Celtic town named by Ptolemaius in the region of modern day Frankfurt (Main), what is presumably the Heidetrńnk-Oppidum. Gawajam-Kimbroz seems to be placed where Vorbasse is, an important archaeological site in Denmark. The dot of Gawajam-Heruskoz marks the region as well of the place of the Varrus Battle as of an important crossing of two Ancient trade routes, the one running from the Rhine East to the Elbe, the other from the Main North to Denmark. In the Middle Ages the town Dortmund was founded there, but the place was certainly inhabited long before that.
Disclaimer: my posts are to be considered my private opinion and not offical statements by the EB Team