They were known as crafty shipbuilders in ancient times and controlled much of the Adriatic and Ionian Sea using their numerous warships. Illyrians had affective weapons such as the sica, which was a curved-tip sword originating in Illyria but adopted all over the Balkans and later by the Romans.
I saw that you intended to make a pirate unit for them-you can name them dalmatian,dardosi or liburnian pirates because thease three tribes were mostly known in the adriatic sea for their raids of roman ships.
According to Greek writer Herodianus from 3rd century , Illyrians were very strong, tall and always ready to fight but lazy. Strabon reported that Illyrians used tattoos to paint their bodies.
According to Greek historians (they described Dardan tribe) they were very filthy. They would take a bath twice in their life. When they got married and when they died.
Plague and similar diseases were common to Illyirians.
They knew a lot of herbs which they used in healing processes.
Varon wrote that Illyrian women had childbirths with ease.
They used drinks a lot.
Short-Hold(number) of settelments and destroy or outlive Macedon and Rome.
Since historically the illyrians were in war with Greek Macedon,Rome(three wars against the Romans!) and from time to time they would get in conflict with Gauls,because the Gauls wanted their lands mostly the city of Aquileia(see the first map-top left)
FACTION LEADER NAMES:
This leaders written here all historically existed-add more by imagination or if you find anything,because this won't be enough or will?
These first five were the most important:
Bardylis(First illyrian king-he was killed by Phillip II,father of Alexander the great)
Glaukias(after the death of alexander the great he freed the illyrian lands of greek rule and drive of the greeks from the city of Skodra,which under his rule become the capital city of Illyria)
Agron(he was the most capable leader-he united the Illyrian tribes and in his rule Illyrian kingdom was the strongest)
Teuta(she was agron's wife.She ruled insted of Agron's young son Pineus.At her time the romans started the war with Illyrians,she lost most of the provinces and she was betrayed by her military commander-Demetrius Hvaranius)
Genthius(last Illyrian king,romans inslaved him and after that Illyria was divided into four parts,which late again become one roman province with the main city Skodra)
Etuta(daughter of Monunius)
Pinnes of Pannonia
Triteuta(mother of Pinnes)
Cleitus the Illyrian
Bato of Dardania
Audata(once wife of Phillip II!!)
Cynane(half sister of Alexander the great!!)
You choose which cities will you make I will just post pictures and text!
Important cities of the Illyrians:
Scodra-Capital city of the Illyrians
Rhizon-stronghold of many kings, high degree of Hellenization
Tarsatica-After the romanization of the land the romans turned it into a fort
Salona (central Illyria) was a stronghold and a harbour of the Illyrian Dalmati which quite early came into the sphere of influence of the Greeks on the Adriatic. It was well known for piratical activities. In the Illyrian Wars of 229-228 BCE and 220-219 BCE, Rome overran the Illyrian settlements in the Neretva river valley and suppressed the piracy that had made the Adriatic unsafe for Italian commerce. The Romans were often faced by rebellions of various Illyrian tribes even after 168 BCE when the province of Illyricum was formed. However the majority of sailors in the Roman military navy originated from that area.
Aemona (northern Illyria-Amona on the lowest map); region includes Histrians as Italic-like northern Illyrians (aka Venetic Illyrian tribe). The Romans described the Histrians as a fierce tribe of pirates, protected by the difficult navigation of their rocky coasts. The Romans to conduct their first campaign against them as early as 221 BCE, after they had conquered the north of Italy and the territory of the Veneti who became faithful Roman allies. To strengthen their defences the Romans created the military settlement of Aquileia in 181 BCE, and the Histrians were finally beaten in 181-177 BCE. This region includes also other Illyrian tribes like Liburnians who were renowned seafarers, notorious for their raids in the Adriatic Sea, which they conducted in their swift galleys. Besides there was a mixed Celtic-Illyrian culture in the northern part of the region.
Delminium-Importan for tradeing
These were Liburnian Illyrian cities-In the northern part of their kingdom
These(red) are cities in the southern part of the Illyrian kingdom on te border with the greeks and thracians
A better all round map of Illyria(green border)
Here is the position of all Illyrian tribes throughout the Illyrian kingdom
ILLYRIAN RELIGION-GODS(so you can make shrines!)
These aren't all the gods just the most part of them-2-3 are missing!
Illyrian gods were the objects of worship of the Illyrians, an Indo-European people in ancient history who maintained a polytheistic religion. Central to their beliefs was the concept that everything was "born" by Mother Earth, who was represented by the Goddess "Genusus". The name of the goddess is believed to have a relation of the Greek word of "Genesis" which is translated as "the beginning" of an object, or act.(short description!)
List of Gods
Illyrian deity in serpentine form in Epidaur. His cult has survived until the fourth century AD.This snake was called by the local people with this name precisely (Hieronimi in "Vita Hilarionis" lib.9, scores "Boas vocant sermonte GENTILI quo" - "that people in their language called Boa").-That's why they had snakes illustrated on some of their shields!
The god of water and sea,the equivalent of Poseidon or Neptune.
she is a goddess of beasts,hunting and moon-similar to the greek Artemis
She was a goddess that in terms of belief, seems to have been restricted to the Illyrian tribe of the Liburnae. She's the Illyrian equivalent of Aphrodite/Venus!
She was the goddess of fertility/birth. Her equivalent in the Greek mythology is Demeter. She is also honored with a week-day; e premte (friday). This is also interesting since the Germanic people have also named Friday after their fertility goddess, freya; examples are Freitag in German, Fredag in Scandinavian languages and Friday in the English language.
Enji - He was the god of fire & war. He's equivalent in Greek & roman mythology might be Ares/Mars.
Dualos - The god/goddess of whine.Dionisius is the greek god of wine
Ika,Boria,Iria- goddesess of rivers
Armatus-god of war
Sylvan-god of forests
Tadenus-God of the Sun
Terminus-god of borders
Medaurus-god of healing
Grabovia- war triumph, war- Illyirians used human sacrifices to this god
Liburnian pirates were famed cause they were high skilled archers and seamen.
Dalmatian warriors were most warlike, and easily drawn to fight. They used spear called Sibyna which they thrown before engaging in close combat in which they used very often two weapons in combat, one of them was broad swords (celtic influence). Dalmatians were great smiths and their soldiers had high quality armor. Combination leather and metal. Something like splint mail.
Illyirians used shields quite often.
Japodes warriors were great ambushers. Bloodthirsty barbarians, used axes and swords.
Tautalan soldiers were feared. We can say that they were something like berserkers.
Liburnica navis (liburnian bireme) was respected and Romans used that ship in combat. Fast, agile ships.
Dardans and Breucs were great horsemans .
If there are two names choose the one you like better.
Illyrian Noble spearman(these are not hoplites!)
Illyrian footmen or hoplites
Illyrian fighting style didn't very differe from the greek!
Illyrian heavy infantry
Illyrian light infantry
Illyrian heavy peltasts
Illyrian light peltasts or Japodian light peltasts
Illyrian light infantry
Illyrian heavy swordsman
Illyrian light cavalry
Illyrian heavy cavalry
Illyrian spear warband or illyrian light infantry
so it looks little different from the britons
Illyrian shield symbols
Illyrian bronze helmet
Illyrian pot helmet
Illyrian armor and helmets
small pelta shield
Re: Asgaroths Research
The Bosporan Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus was an ancient state, located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus (see Strait of Kerch). It is interesting as the first truly 'Hellenistic' state in the sense of one in which a mixed population adopted the Greek language and civilization.
Greek cities of the Bosporus started as independent poleis(city states like Sparta and Athens),united in 480 BC under the rule of an aristocratic family of Archeanactids.
Capture(number of settelments) and outlive or destroy faction/faction's:Scythia,Thrace
Scythia-they were historically in war with them!
Thrace-Don't have proof that they have ever been in war with Thrace,but-a tyrant Spartocus (438 BC - 431 BC), apparently a Thracian. He founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c. 110 BC. The Spartocids have left many inscriptions which indicate that the earlier members of the house ruled as archons of the Greek cities and kings of various native tribes, notably the Sindi of the island district and other branches of the Maeotae.
Greek cities allys maybe-They maintained close relations with Athens, their best customers for the Bosporan grain export, of which Leucon I set the staple at Theodosia, where the Attic ships were allowed special privileges.
So I think they can fight against Thrace,but however Spartocus has to remain on of the faction leaders of Bosporan Kingdom!(because that's the way it was!)
FACTION LEADER NAMES
Different faction kings ruled the Bosporan Kingdom-Greeks,Scythians,Pontians and Romans(but I won't put Romans since it doesn't have sense,because in the game period Rome has yet to spread)...
These four are the most important:
Spartocus(Thracian tyrant.His dynasty-The Spartocids have left many inscriptions which indicate that the earlier members of the house ruled as archons of the Greek cities and kings of various native tribes)
Satyrus(the successor of Spartocus, established his rule over the whole district, adding Nymphaeum to his dominions and laying siege to Theodosia, which was a serious commercial rival because of its ice-free port and proximity to the grain fields of eastern Crimea)
Paerisades V(important because of their connection with Pontus and he was the last King of the everlasting dynasty of the Spartocids-unable to make headway against the power of the natives, in 108 BC called in the help of Diophantus, general of King Mithridates VI of Pontus, promising to hand over his kingdom to that prince. He was slain by a Scythian named Saumacus who led a rebellion against him and later also became the King of the Bosporan Kingdom!.)
Rhescouporis II(conquered the Scythians and proudly called himself "king of the entire Bosporus and of the Tauroscythians")
Here come the Spartocids:
-I don't know if there were any other
After this came the roman leaders which as explained above I won't put!
BOSPORAN KINGDOM CITIES
These are the Greek Colonies along the black sea!
Most important Bosporan cities:
Panticapaeum(capital city of the Bosporan kingdom)
Nymphaion(tradeing center-from here they trade with Athens)
Ruins of Panticapaeum-the capital city of Bosporan Kingdom
BOSPORAN KINGDOM RELIGION-GODS
The religion of the Bosporus is viewed in this monograph as a blend of Greek and indigenous Iranian traditions.
Gods were dressed in more persian(iranian)and scythian way.But as you can see most of them were greek!
Aphrodite-Aphrodite was not the only deity worshipped in the Greek cities of the Bosporus, but she was the only one who had distinct local connections even at the early stages of the Greek colonization of the area.she was the most high god of the Bosporan Kingdom!!
Poseidon-greek god of the sea.He was depicated on a number of Bosporan coins,especially those struck by Suromates II
Heracles-He was also on the coins as Poseidon.He was the son of Zeus and half brother of Perseus.He was a demigod that was worshiped as a god and he represented courage and strength.
Demeter- is the goddess of the harvest, who presided over grains, the fertility of the earth, and the seasons.Though Demeter is often described simply as the goddess of the harvest, she presided also over the sanctity of marriage, the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death.She was mostly worshiped in the city of Nymphaeum!
Cybele-goddess of the fertile Earth, a goddess of caverns and mountains, walls and fortresses, nature, wild animals (especially lions and bees)
Zeus-Greek highest god.God of lightning and storm that was also worshiped on Bosporus,but the highest goddess in Bosporan kingdom as said above was Aphrodite!
Hera-was the wife and one of three sisters of Zeus in the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology. Her chief function was as the goddess of women and marriage.
Eros-God of love and sexuality.His figures appear in Bosporan tombs.His image was sometimes "barbarized".The winged youthwas shown armed,wearing a torque,and dressed in a typical Sarmatian costume!
There are more of them but I can't find a clear description for them.I think six are enough since I think you plan to make only three shrines?
BOSPORAN KINGDOM ARMY
It's clear that the army of Bosporan Kingdom will be a mix between Greek,Scythian,Sarmatian and Pontic troops.
Greek heavy peltasts
Pontic medium cavalry
Scythiyn Noble cavalry
thracian light peltasts
Sarmatian horse archers
scythian archers warband
Sarmatian foot archers
Sarmatian levy spearman
pontic Bosporan heavy infantry
WEAPONS AND ARMOR
Bosporan sword(barbarian-sarmatian style)
Scythian recurve bow
scythian bronze axe
Greek brestplate and helmet
scythian bronze helmet
Re: Asgaroths Research
The Nabataean kingdom was a political state of the Nabataeans which existed during Classical antiquity and was annexed by the Roman Empire in Ad 106..
Diodorus describes the Nabataeans as nomads who 'range over a country which is partly desert and partly waterless, though a small section of it is fruitful... It is their custom neither to plant grain, set out any fruit-bearing tree, use wine, nor construct any house... Some of them raise camels, others sheep, pasturing them in the desert... They themselves use as food flesh and milk and those of the plants that grow wild from the ground which are suitable for this purpose'.
Straddling the northern end of the caravan route from South Arabia to the Mediterranean, the Nabataean kingdom emerged as a great merchant-trader realm during the first centuries B.C. and A.D.
Hold(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions Ptolemaic empire,Seleucid Empire...
Seleucids-The Nabataeans were allies of the first Hasmoneans in their struggles against the Seleucid monarchs.
Ptolemaic empire-"Some Nabataeans indulged in piracy on the Red Sea, profitably attacking the merchant ships of Ptolemaic Egypt."
-During the King Malichus II reign, in 32 BC Herod the Great started a war against Nabatea, with the support of Cleopatra. The war started with Herod's army plundering Nabataea and with a large cavalry force, and the occupation of Dium. After this defeat the Nabatean forces amassed near Canatha in Syria, but were attacked and routed. Athenio (Cleopatra's General) sent Canathans to the aid of the Nabateans, and this force crushed Herod's army which then fled to Ormiza. One year later, Herod's army overran Nabataea.
So the Ptolomaic empire can be allys and enemies,you choose?
FACTION LEADER NAMES
I couldn't find many of them so you will have to make up some names yourselvs along with these historical names.
These three were the most important leaders:
Aretas I(first known king of the Nabataeans- His name appeared on the oldest Nabataean inscription dating from 168 BC which was found at Halutza.)
Rabbel II Soter(Soter-"Savior of the People" was the last ruler of the Nabataean Kingdom")
Aretas IV Philopatris(at his time Nabataean kingdom was the stronges-he was in bad relations with the Romans)
Aretas III Philhellen
After Gamilath Nabataean Kingdom was annexed by Trajan becoming the Roman province of Arabia Petraea!
Not all these are Nabataean cities-look at the border map below!
Petra(capital of the Nabataean kingdom-)
Bostra(first Nabataean city-it was important because of the trading roots that passed through the city)
Nabataean Kingdom border(so you can better point it out on the campaign map)
Remains of the capital city of the Nabathaean Kingdom-Petra
Being a trade junction, the Nabateans were effectively exposed to many different belief systems, whether from Egypt, Syria, Canaan, Assyria, Babylon, Greece or Rome. This situation was decisive for the development of Nabatean religion.
Their religion was as most other religions of the time, polytheistic. Gods were represented as rocks, both in a symbolic but also in a literal sense. The rocks were holy in themselves and a part of the divine, but also a link to a dimension beyond. The rocks can be understood as a sort of altar.
Dushara-the highest,most important Nabataean god
-he was the god of the sun and wine
Atagatis-goddess of fertility( so if you choose this shrine-population growth +)
Allat-God of the Moon
Manat-God of fate
Uzza-god of water
Nabataean desert infantry
Judean Zealot heavy infantry
Egyptian native slingers
Eastern light cavalry(just attach a horse in the scripts)
Assyrian allied infantry
Nabataean noble spearman
Nabataean eastern infantry
Assyrian cavalry(put the bow insted of the spear)
Bedouin camel archers
WEAPONS AND ARMOR
Eastern helmets(The big one in the bottom left is of a slinger
Re: Asgaroths Research
-was an ancient kingdom established and ruled by Iranian dynasties in the 4th century BC in modern Iranian Azarbaijan and Iranian Kurdistan.Atropatene also was the nominal ancestor of the name Azarbaijan.
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Seleucid Empire
No armenia- "It does not seem to have given border conflicts with the western neighbour Armenia."
However Parthia did fought against Armenia but Atropatene didn't and Atropatene was directly an ally of Parthia.In 20 BC Atropatena became fully dependent on Parthia as one of its provinces and lost its statehood!
Seleucid Empire-it is written that they opposed the hellenization and preserved its Iranian tradition...So by this they must have been at war?
FACTION LEADER NAMES
Artavasdes III,Artavasdes I and Aristobanes II later become kings of Armenia,but I couldn't find how.
There are no leaders that stood out mostly for this faction!
map of the cities(I couldn't find a bigger map of the cities)
Ghazakka(capital city of Atropatene Kingdom)
Phraaspa(However isn't on the map,but you know where it is from playing RTW-It was the most important fortress of the Atropatene Kingdom!)
Atropatene people(mostly persians) had Ahura Mazda religion...Zoroastrism and Ahura Mazda are relate but however different religions.Atropatene Kingdom and Parthia had Ahura Mazda religion and Sassanids in BI had Zoroastrism and at that time Ahura Mazda stop existing!..Ahura Mazda is described as the highest deity of worship in Zoroastrianism(so it is part of Zoroastrism but from the begining it was a religion for itself!), along with being the first and most frequently invoked deity in the Yasna!!!!...
Keep the religion of the Parthians from RTW
And as you can see this religion wasn't polytheistic like most of them from this time,it was monotheistic(one god)...So keep the one shrine and description for it from RTW!
ATROPATENE KINGDOM ARMY
Iranian foot archers
Persian royal guard
Parthian medium sperarman
Re: Asgaroths Research
The biggest part of Thrace is part of present-day Bulgaria. In Turkey, it is also called Rumelia. The name comes from the Thracians, an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeastern Europe.They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family.
The indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the Thracians, divided into numerous tribal groups. Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace, and took on the Persian Empire of the day.
The Thracians did not describe themselves as such and Thrace and Thracians are simply the names given them by the Greeks.
Like Illyrians, Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions fostered a locally ruled warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable.
Although the concept of an urban center wasn't developed until the Roman period, various larger fortifications which also served as regional market centers were numerous. Yet, in general, despite Greek colonization in such areas as Byzantium, Apollonia and other cities, the Thracians avoided urban life.
Thracians were regarded as warlike, ferocious, and bloodthirsty.They were seen as "barbarians" by other peoples, namely the ancient Greeks and Romans. Plato in his Republic considers them, along with the Scythians,extravagant and high spirited and his Laws considers them war-like nations grouping them with Celts, Persians, Scythians, Iberians and Carthagianians
Short:Take(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Macedon,Dacia,Gauls or at least some Gaul settlements!
Macedon-the region(thrace) was conquered by Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC and was ruled by the kingdom of Macedon for a century and a half...
Dacia-Apart from conflicts between Thracians and neighboring nations and tribes, numerous wars were recorded among Thracian tribes too...Dacians were a Thracian tribe!...
And apart from the game if you are a leader-to be strong you first must unite the tribes and the only way to do that is by diplomacy(which is toooooo bad in every RTW serial)or to defeat them in war...
Gaul-n 279 BC, Celtic Gauls advanced into Macedonia, Southern Greece and Thrace. They were soon forced out of Macedonia and Southern Greece, but they remained in Thrace until the end of the century. From Thrace, three Celtic tribes advanced into Anatolia and formed a new kingdom called Galatia.
Tylis was founded by Gauls!!!
Or we can put gaul faction goals:Thrace?
FACTION LEADER NAMES
All these were historical leaders of Thrace
These were the most important leaders:
Teres I(He was the first king of Thrace who united the 40 or more Thracian tribes under one banner, was well-known for his military abilities and spent much of his life on the battlefield. He died during a military campaign in 445 BC.)
Sitalces(son of Teres I who seemed to have taken on his fathers fighting prowess and used all the tribes to wage war with Macedon.)
Cotys II Sapaean
Cotys II Odrysian
Rhescuporis I Odrysian
Rhescuporis I Sapaean
Rhescuporis II Astaean
Thracians tended to build their walled cities and fortresses on the tops of hills!
Ancient map of Thrace
The little black house is Seuthopolis-the capital
Most important cities:
Seuthopolis(capital city of the Thracian Kingdom)
Ratiaria(was a city founded by Moesi, a Daco-Thracian tribe, in 4th century BC, along the river Danube. The city had a gold mine in the vicinity, which was exploited by the Thracians.)
Sabazios-highest god of the Phrygians and Thracians.He was a god of the sky and underworld.
Hera-goddess of the sky
Kotys-Goddess of vegetation
Cybele-Goddess of earth harvest and love...So we can see here that Thracian religion influenced the religion of Bosporan Kingdom.
Myndrytos-He is a god of thieves,shepherds,cowherds,literature and poets.His equivalent is Hermes.
Bendis-Goddess of the moon and fate
Zerinthia-Love goddess.Her equivalent was Aphrodite
The Thracians are perhaps best known for introducing the use of Peltasts to the Greek world. A peltast carried a shield and helmet for protection, and fought with javelin and sword in loose order formations, emphasizing mobility over shock power. Thracians were also famed for their cavalary, as they had exceptionally fine horses, and employed the advanced light horse tactics of the Skythians.
Thracian men traditionally wore their hair in top-knots, and their pointed "alokepsis" hat was designed around this practice, as was the "Thracian" helmet pattern later popular throughout the ancient world. Thracians also wore long, colorful cloaks called "Zeira", which were brightly decorated with geometric patterns.
General's element comprised of well outfitted Thracian nobles. These nobles often had fine bronze armor imported from Greece. Early Thracian cavalry wore Chalcidian helmets if they wore helmets at all, only later exchanging them for the "Thracian" helmets often seen in pictures. Later Thracian nobles wore more advanced composite scale armor, similar to the Skythians.
The majority of Thracian cavalry was unarmoured javelin-armed light cavalry. These troops fought primarily with javelins, but could charge in the wedge formation used by the Skythians to some effect.
Peltasts and Thureophoroi make up the bulk of the Thracian army. Fighting in loose order and using melee weapons when necessary, they were very effective in broken terrain, but unable to stand up to heavy formed troops in the open.Their primary weapons were the javelin (of which they traditionally carried 2), and some sort of melee weapon. This weapon could be anything from a stabbing spear to a falx, to the "rhomphaia", which was a sort of battle scythe unique to the Thracians.Before 300BC, these soldiers would carry the crescent shaped Pelta, and wore no helmets. Later, the Pelta was exchanged for the sturdier Thureos: a thick, oval shield believed to have been copied from Celtic designs. They also adopted the "Thracian" helmet some time in the 4th Century BC.
Slingers were often the poorest troops, and dressed in little more than their tunics, which would be an earth tone in color.
Archers were very rare in the Thracian army, but were not unheard of.
Hoplites were adopted from the greek fighting style.
Getai light cavalry
Elite infantry(with rhomphaia)
Barbarian archer warband
thracian Noble cavalry
Barbarian heavy cavalry
Thracian heavy infantry
Pelta shield with traditional gorgon painting(Medusa)
Re: Asgaroths Research
KINGDOM OF PONTUS
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state of Kurdish or Persian origin on the southern coast of the Black Sea. It was founded by Mithridates I in 291 BC and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BC. The kingdom grew to its largest extent under Mithridates VI the Great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia.
The coastal region was dominated by the Greek cities such as Amastris and Sinope, the latter which became the Pontic capital after its capture!
The coast was rich in Timber, fishing and the olive trade. Pontus was also rich in Iron and silver, which were mined near the coast south of Pharnacia, steel from the Chalybian mountains became quite famous in Greece.
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Seleucid Empire,Greek cities
Seleucid Empire-"Mithridates first went to the city of Cimiata in Paphlagonia and later to Amasia in Cappadocia. He fought against Seleucus I and in 281 (or 280) BC declared himself ruler of a state in northern Cappadocia and eastern Paphlagonia and ruled from 302 to 266."
No Armenians-i don't know how will this come up in the game but Armenia and Pontus were actually allys!!
Greek cities-"Pharnaces I of Pontus (189-159 BC) was much more successful in his expansion against the Greek coastal cities. He joined in a war with Prusias of Bithynia against Eumenes of Pergamon in 188 BC, but the two made peace in 183 after Bithynia suffered a series of reversals. He took Sinope in 182 B.C. and though the Rhodians complained to Rome over this, nothing was done. Pharnaces also took the coastal cities of Cotyora, Pharnacia and Trapezus in the east, effectively controlling most of the northern Anatolian coastline"
I have also found that Mithridates had a campaign in which he marched to Europe,but he was defeated by Sulla(Roman general) in Thessaly-but what was his goal?-it seems like he wanted to reconquer the lost Macedonian and greek lands from the romans?Or was his primary goal greece not depending the romans taken the land?...But still there is no word pointing on that,so it will stay Thrace,because it is in the original RTW short campaign and Seleucid that I found evidence for!
There isn't many information on Pontic wars.The hardest fights they had were against the romans known as the first,second and third Mithridatic war.Before that they fought mostly against Bithynia(and later as you can see became allys) and Seleucids.Since it doesn't exist in the mod I will leave the faction goals as listed above due to lack of historical evidence!!!
However I have found that they(Pontus-Mithridates i) have taken the settlement of Chersonesos,so in the long campaign you can put this city to be conquered as on of the goals when playing as Pontus.Pontus was in good relationship with Bosporan kingdom,but before Chersonesos was captured it had belong to the Scythians,not Bosporan Kingdom!
FACTION LEADER NAMES
These were the most important Pontic leaders:
Mithridates I Ctistes(founder of the Kingdom of Pontus!)
Pharnaces I(Captured Sinope which had been long an object of ambition to the Kings of Pontus and later it become the capital of the kingdom)
You will need to put those from RTW because here are few of them.There were 2-3 of them(1 queen and 2 kings) but they were Roman cilent kings/queen so that is illogical to put them.
Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos
Mithridates V Euergetes
Mithridates VI Eupator
Darius of Pontus
Arsaces of Pontus
Amasya-Amasis on the map below!( was a fortified city high on the cliffs above the river. It has a long history as provincial capital-(before Sinope was captured), a wealthy city producing kings and princes, artists, scientists, poets and thinkers, from the kings of Pontus)
Mazaca(the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East also crossed the city.)-It is not on the map(I couldn't find a better map of the cities).You know where it is from RTW
The interior of the kingdom had powerful Temples with large estates. The gods of the Kingdom were mostly syncretic, with features of local gods, Persian and Greek Deities.
Apollo-has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, medicine, healing, plague, music, poetry, arts and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste
Men-god of the Moon
Ma-goddess of hunting,caverns and mountains,walls and fortresses, nature, wild animals.
Zeus-God of lightning and storm
The Pontic army is a merging of the Persian with the Hellenistic, which one would expect form this area bypassed by Alexander’s conquests.That can by mostly seen by various use of the pike units armed with the long sarissa. Persian style cavalry may choose to have xyston or throwing spears. The phalanx is very ornate, but they look better than they fight. The army on the whole is brittle but is very large and seems appropriate for its quirky commander Mithridates VI eupator. The army uses an abundance of Scythed Chariots, but has no elephants.
pontic imitation legionnaires
Pontic heavy cavalry
Greek heavy peltasts
Pontic heavy infantry
Royal pikeman(ponto-greek style)
Pontic bronze shield pikeman
Eastern light peltasts(change color)
Pontic light cavalry
Re: Asgaroths Research
The name Numidia was first applied by Polybius and other historians during the third century BC to indicate the territory west of Carthage, including the entire north of Algeria as far as the river Mulucha (Muluya), about 100 miles west of Oran. The Numidians were conceived of as two great tribal groups: the Massylii in eastern Numidia, and the Masaesyli in the west
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Carthage
Numidia wasn't a nation that was eager for expanding their lands.Even the relationship between the east and west tribes weren't excelent.The western tribe-Masaesyli mostly supported romans in their campaign and the eastern was supporting Carthage.That was clear in the second punic war when king Gala(leader of the eastern tribe) allied with Carthage and Syphax(leader of the western tribe) allied with the romans...so it will stay as it was-Carthage.
FACTION LEADER NAMES
Massinissa(first numidian king-fought as ally of the romans in the battle of Zama)
this were the best maps of Numidia I could find
Cirta(capital of Numidia)
Tingis(Treading centar of the western part-had the most important port in the kingdom)
Siwa(main city of the eastern part of the kingdom-there was a huge oasis that was important for food harvesting)
Remains of ancient siwaNUMIDIAN RELIGION
The numidian religion was a mixof Egyptian and Phoenician(Carthage) bliefsso they honouredboth of them.
Baal-God of war
Amon-God of sun
Isis-Goddess of nature and magic
Milquart-God of the underworld
Astarte-Goddess of war,sexuality and fertility
Numidian kings were never able to come up with decent infantry, although they did succeed in some improvement under King Syphax. During the Second Punic War he was able to obtain the services of a Roman centurion Quintus Statorius. Livy has Syphax saying his army was quite shapeless and haphazard, a mere casual mob. The centurion went to work. "Statorius found ample material from which to enrol infantry soldiers for Syphax; he organized them very much after the Roman pattern, gave them instruction in forming up, maneuvering, following the standards, and keeping formation, and accustomed them to various military duties, including fortifications, and all so successfully that the prince soon came to trust his infantry no less than his cavalry, and that when an engagement took place on open ground he defeated his Carthaginian foe." [Livy, The History of Rome Book XXIV]
This was obviously too dangerous for Carthage who allied with the most famous Numidian prince Masinissa to annihilate Syphaxs army. Some vestige of the training of Statorius must have stuck, because the Numidian infantry is never referred to as a formless mass in later times. In fact, the formations do seem to echo the Roman maniples and although this can only be conjecture, the infantry fight in a mix of Roman and Numidian techniques as a sort of light infantry. Showing an ability to maintain unit cohesion and rally to standards like the Roman troops, while attempting to avoid direct contact in their native fashion.
"When Jugurtha saw that Metellus rearguard had passed the first lines of his own army, he stationed a force of some two thousand infantry on the hill at the point where Metellus had descended, so that the Romans would not be able to retreat to it and defend themselves there. Immediately afterwards he gave the order to attack.
The rear of Metellus column suffered heavy casualties and both flanks were assailed by mobile assailants who pressed home their attacks and spread general confusion in the Roman ranks. For even the men who resisted with the most dogged courage were disconcerted by this irregular manner of fighting, in which they were wounded at long range without being able to strike back or come to grips with their foe [Sallust, The Jugurthine War.51]
When the infantry had to wait for combat closer formations were favoured, because troops in close formations are less likely to run away. These would be extended to deliver an attack. This is more suggestive of light infantry troops. It should be noted
that the Numidians also made good skirmish troops. This type of fighting entirely suiting their nature. "Accordingly, he altered the formation of his battle line, which, because he distrusted his men's courage, he had drawn up in close order. He now extended it so he would be able to block the enemies line of march." [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 53]
The cavalry was always the more effective arm of the Numidian cavalry.. Each rider being familiar with the way he was required to fight. Both cavalry squadrons and infantry companies utilized standards to rally to after an evade and would form up on these. "Jugurtha took up his own position nearer the mountain with all his cavalry and the pick of his infantry. Then visiting each squadron and company, he earnestly besought them to remember the victory which their valor had already gained.
The Numidians had stationed themselves and their horses among the thickets and although they were not completely hidden by the low trees, it was difficult to distinguish just what was there since the men and their standards were concealed both by their surroundings and by camouflage." [Sallust. The Jugurthine War. 49]
The outcome of this was that the Numidians cavalry was able to retire swiftly from a charge, but return quickly to the attack. This method would be used whether the enemy was foot or mounted. "Whenever a squadron of Roman cavalry began to charge, instead of retiring in a body in one direction, they retreated independently, scattering as widely as possible. In this way they could take advantage of their numerical superiority. If they failed to check their enemies' charge, they would wait until the Romans lost their formation and then cut them off." [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 51]
Even in formal battles as auxiliaries for Carthage or Rome, the Numidians maintained this loose manner of fighting. The metaphor of a pack of dogs springs readily to mind. Any charge would not be resisted, but the flanks and rear of the enemy would be savaged as the attack ran out of steam. The aim was to cut off the victim and force him to stand or run. To stand was to be shot to death. To run was fatal. The Numidian cavalry was deadly in pursuit. Even if the enemy was not dispersed they would be neutralised by the scattered Numidians.
Polybius gave an excellent account of this style of fighting in his account of the battle of Cannae. "The Numidian horse on the Carthaginian right were meanwhile charging through the cavalry on the Roman left; and though, from the peculiar nature of their mode of fighting, they neither inflicted nor received much harm, they yet rendered the enemy's horse useless by keeping them occupied, and charging them first on one side and then another. But when Hasdrubal, after all but annihilating the cavalry by the river, came from the left to the support of the Numidians, the Roman allied cavalry, seeing his charge approaching, broke and fled. At that point Hasdrubal appears to have acted with great skill and discretion. Seeing the Numidians to be strong in numbers, and more effective and formidable to troops that had once been forced from their ground, he left the pursuit to them; while he himself hastened to the part of the field where the infantry were engaged, and brought his men up to support the Libyans." [Polybios Book 3, 116.5]
As previously mentioned, the Numidian army lacked real staying power and although the cavalry and infantry could deal very effectively with enemy mounted troops by use of formations working in close support, Disciplined infantry were another problem. In an effort to hold the Romans until the heavy missiles could destroy them with missile fire, the Numidians made extensive use of African elephants. Caesar describes some as having towers on their backs, Sallust is less clear, but both mention body protection.
That this combination of tactics was initially quite effective is apparent by the degree of trouble Julius Caesar took to accustom his legionaries to the beasts. "Caesar was rendered very anxious by these occurrences; because as often as he engaged with his cavalry, without being supported by the infantry, he found himself by no means a match for the enemy's horse, supported by their light-armed foot: and as he had no experience of the strength of their legions, he foresaw still greater difficulties when these should be united, as the shock must then be overwhelming. In addition to this, the number and size of the elephants greatly increased the terror of the soldiers; for which, however, he found a remedy, in causing some of those animals to be brought over from Italy, that his men might be accustomed to the sight of them, know their strength and courage, and in what part of the body they were most vulnerable.
For as the elephants are covered with trappings and ornaments, it was necessary to inform them what parts of the body remained naked, that they might direct their darts thither. It was likewise needful to familiarize his horses to the cry, smell, and figure of these animals; in all of which he succeeded to a wonder; for the soldiers quickly came to touch them with their hands, and to be sensible of their tardiness; and the cavalry attacked them with blunted darts, and, by degrees, brought their horses to endure their presence. [Caesar, The civil War Book 11.72]
Significant numbers of elephants are recorded in Numidian armies, ranging from four captured and 40 killed in one battle to 60 in another and even 120 with the troops fighting Caesar. Elephants have always been a two edged weapon, as the Romans were aware and once they had grown used to dealing with them the legions found that fleeing elephants would either trample their own troops in flight or generate a panic in units that had put their faith in the mighty beasts. Even after years of training, elephants could remain a dangerous proposition to all troops on the battlefield. "Caesar perceiving that the ardor of his soldiers would admit of no restraint, giving "good fortune" for the word, spurred on his horse, and charged the enemy's front. On the right wing the archers and slingers poured their eager javelins without intermission upon the elephants, and by the noise of their slings and stones, so terrified these animals, that turning upon their own men, they trod them down in heaps, and rushed through the half-finished gates of the camp
. At the same time the Mauritanian horse, who were in the same wing with the elephants, seeing themselves deprived of their assistance, betook themselves to flight." [Caesar, The Civil War Book 11.83]
Numidian cavalry and infantry were used to operating with elephants and capable of stiff resistance as long as the elephants stood fast. Little thought seems to have been given to placement of theses ancient tanks as is shown by the description of a battle where the elephants are deployed in rough ground. " As soon as the enemy came close both sides charged with loud shouts. The Numidians stood their ground only as long as they thought they could rely on their elephants for protection. When they saw the beasts getting entangled in the branches of trees, with the result that they were separated and could be surrounded by the enemy, they took to their heels. Most of them, dropping their arms escaped unhurt, thanks to the proximity of a hill and the approaching dark.. Four elephants were killed and all the remaining forty killed." [Sallust, The Jugurthine War. 53]
It is interesting to note that the later battles of the Jugurthine war do not feature elephants. Perhaps the supply had dried up, or the Numidian commanders no longer trusted them. Probably a combination of both.
Numidian imitation legionnaires
Numidian tribesmen infantry
Numidian Masaesily caavalry
Numidian spear infantry
Numidian Massylii Cavalry
Numidian desert infantry
Numidian tribe peltasts
Numidian war symbols
Re: Asgaroths Research
Armenia is one of the oldest countries in the world with a recorded history of about 3500 years.
The oldest known ancestors of modern Armenians, the Hayasa-Azzi tribes, also known as Proto-Armenians, were indigenous to the Armenian Highland in Eastern Anatolia. These tribes formed the Nairi tribal union, which existed
until late 13th century BC. The legendary forefather of Armenians, Hayk, famous for his battles with Babylonian ruler Bel, most likely was one of the Hayasa tribal leaders.
Capture(number)of settlements and outlive or destroy faction/factions:Seleucid empire
Due to lack of historical evidence I leave this goal as I only found that Armenia was later on in war with Rome.
ARMENIAN FACTION LEADER NAMES
Orontes I Sakavakyats
Tigranes II the great
Tušpa(or often called Van was the capital of the Armenian Kingdon under rule of Orontes I Sakavakyats)
The pantheon of Armenian gods formed during the nucleation of the Proto-Armenian tribes that, at the initial stage of their existence, inherited the essential elements of paganism from the Proto-Indo-European tribes that inhabited the Armenian Plateau. Beliefs of the ancient Armenians were associated with the worship of many cults, mainly the cult of ancestors, the worship of heavenly bodies (the cult of the Sun, the Moon cult, the cult of Heaven) and the worship of certain creatures (lions, eagles, bulls).
Aramazd(The father of all the gods and goddesses, Aramazd created the heavens and the earth. The first two letters in his name, "AR", are the Armenian root for sun, light, and life. Worshiped as a sun-god, Aramazd was considered to be the source of earth’s fertility. His feast Am'nor, or New Year, was celebrated on March 21 in the old Armenian calendar. Aramazd's main sanctuary was one of the principal cult centers of Ancient Armenia.)
Anahit(The goddess of fertility and birth, and daughter or wife of Aramazd, Anahit is identified with Artemis and Aphrodite. "Great Lady Anahit", one of the most loved and honored Armenian goddesses, was often sculptured with a child in her hands, and with a particular hair style of Armenian women. Temples dedicated to Anahit were established in Armavir, Artashat, Ashtishat. A mountain in the Roman district of Sophene was thought to be Anahit's throne (Ator Anahta))
Vahagn(The third god of the Armenian Pantheon, Vahagn is the god of thunder and lightning, and a herculean hero noted for slaying dragons. He was also worshiped as a sun-god and a god of courage. Vahagn's main sanctuary was located in the Ashtishat (a region in ancient Armenia). Vahagn was also a god of war to whom Armenian kings and warlords would pray before engaging in battle.)
Astghik(Goddess of love, beauty and water, wife or lover of Vahagn and often sculptured without clothes. Her temple in Ashtishat was called "the room of Vahagn", where she met her lover. Astghik is still honored nowadays by Armenians worldwide by the Vartavar feast where people celebrate by Water fights.)
Nane(he daughter of Aramazd, Nane was considered thegoddess of war, motherhood and wisdom. Her cult was closely connected with that of Anahit, and her temple was located in Gavar, near Anahit's temple.)
Ara( 'Ara the Beautiful’- the god of spring, flora, agriculture, sowing and water. He is associated with Osiris, Vishnu and Dionysus, as the symbol of new life.)
Mihr(The god of light, heaven and sun. He was the son of Aramazd, the brother of Anahit and Nane. His main worship was located in Bagaharich. The pagan temple of Garni was dedicated to him)
Tir(God of wisdom, culture, science and studies, he also was an interpreter of dreams. He was the messenger of the gods and was associated with Apollo. Tir's temple was located near Artashat.)
Amanor( or Vanatur (same god with different names)Amanor was the deity of Armenian new year. His feast, Navasard (New year), was held at the end of July. His temple was located in Bhagavan.)
Tsovinar(Also called Nar, she was the goddess of rain, sea and water, though she was actually a fiery being who forced rain to fall.)
Spandaramet(The god of the dungeon and the kingdom of the dead, he was identified with the Greek god Hades.)
Hayk(Legendary archer and forefather of the Armenian people, Haik slew the Titan Bel. Haik was identified with the Sun-god Orion.)
Aray( A little-known war god.)
Barsamin(God of sky and weather, probably derived from the semitic god Baal Shamin)
Vanatur(God of hospitality.)
Armenian cataphract cavalry
Armenian chariot archer(change color)
Armenian heavy infantry(hoplites)
Armenian cataphract archers
Armenian heavy archers
Re: Asgaroths Research
The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula at least from the 6th century BC.
Were made up of different but related tribes whose presence stretches from the south of the peninsula and runs in an arc along the east and into the south of France.There were about 23 or more Iberian tribes.
The Iberians lived in isolated communities based on a tribal organization. They also had a knowledge of metalworking, including bronze, and agricultural techniques. Among the most important goods traded by the Iberians were precious metals, particularly tin and copper.
Iberian women were charged with domestic tasks, husbandry of small livestock and cultivated the land together with the men. In some tribes, they participated in the assemblies, and their decision was considered in important issues. Sometimes, women fought together with the men. In the Iberian society, women could also be priestesses. The famous Iberian carving called Lady of Elx, dated from the 3rd century BC and made of limestone, could represent a priestess. The woman wears several collars, and large wheel shaped earrings. A belt hides the hair, probably made into a bun.
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:none
In rtw they have no faction goals!(actually they have-in a longer campaign for every faction-hold 50 provinces and Rome)
As almost every other faction in that period they were in war when rome came to conquer them.Also:
Wars between tribes were frequent. Romans managed to conquest the Iberian fortresses only after long sieges (months, even years) that left hungry and exhausted the besieged warriors. Romans built a palisade around the circumvented fortress, which impeded the beleaguered Iberians to break the circle looking for help.!
Iberian tribes and some costal cities
So these two maps show Iberian peninsula with their tribes and Iberian tribe cities(that as you can see weren't only on the Iberian peninsula).But this also show the time before Cartaghinian conquest(or occupation,how do prefere).But it also shows time before Numidian conquest as Tingis(later became the most important treading centar of the western part of Numidian kingdom because the city had the most important port in the kingdom)...That is also maybe the explaination why can you smetimes see in RTW Spanish/Iberians cross the Gibraltar gate and conquere the city of Tingis-of corse,because it was their before.
Iberians worshiped many deities of natural type (Sun, Moon, various stars) in whose honor they maintained fires in certain promontories, capes and islands. Another type of sanctuaries were visited by people offering bronze figurines (exvotos) to the god living inside the sanctuaries, asking for supernatural help in various tasks, for curing a disease or simply to thank for received favors.
Iberian mythology would encompass all the sacred myths of the cultures in the region of Iberian peninsula.They include Galician mythology, Asturian mythology, Cantabrian mythology, Catalan mythology and Basque mythology.
So gods will be from different tribal mythology instead all gods of one tribe:
Lurbira-goddess of Earth
Eacus-God of water
Mari-goddess of weather-she controls the drought and the rain
Gaizkin-god of disease and plague
Aide-goddess of the air-She could manifest herself in both good (gentle breeze) and evil (storm wind) forms.
Ataegina-goddess of spring and seasonality.
Cariociecus-god of war
Euri-god of the rain.Euri was also believed to control the reincarnation of the soul and was the protector of crops.
Inguma-God of dreams.He was regarded as a malevolent force who entered houses at night and plagued the residents with nightmares. He also kills people while sleeping.
Orko-god of tunder
Iberians were skilled riders and each tribe had a cavalry unit.
Iberian warriors wore a woolen tunic, girt at the waist with a broad belt. The hem of the tunic was often dyed purple. Armour was usually only worn by noblemen and included mail, leather, lamellar and quilted variants. Some warriors wore armour woven from tough grasses. They protected their heads with bronze helmets, and many tribesmen wore highly distinctive headgear made from sinew.
Ancient Roman writers made two distinctions between Iberian infantry; scutarii carried the broad oval shield (scutum) and generally fought as heavy infantry, whilst caetrati used a circular leather buckler (caetra).
Most warriors used spears as their primary weapons - some carried spears and javelins. The Gladius Hispaniensis was a short stabbing sword which was so devastatingly effective that Rome eventually duplicated the design and made it the primary melee weapon of her legionaries. Another fearsome sword, the falcata, was a recurved sabre that was especially popular with Iberian warriors. It was easily capable of crushing helmets and lopping off limbs, and the sword skills of Iberian warriors made them fearsome opponents. Most warriors also carried a broad triangular dagger.
Slingers from the Balearic Islands were famed for their skill. They commenced training at a very early age - their fathers would place a piece of bread atop a pole, and the child was not allowed to eat until he had knocked it down with a successful shot from his sling. Balearic slingers used three slings of different lengths - some hurled small but deadly projectiles of baked clay or lead from long range, whilst others hurled fist-sized rocks at closer quarters.
The Iberians also achieved great renown as horsemen. In fact, such was the repute of Spanish warriors that they formed a large part of Hannibal Barcas mercenary army in the 2nd Punic War.
Iberian Tactics and Training
Their tactics emphasised raids and swift ambushes, followed by rapid withdrawals into wild and broken terrain. All who faced the Iberians found their methods of waging war unnerving. If forced into open battle, they fought in a loose, non-linear formation, attacking and withdrawing, making feints and then attacking somewhere else. This could apparently go on for days.
Training started early in a warriors youth, and skills were honed in raids on neighbouring tribes and the performance of gymnastic exercises. Being a proud people, warriors frequently settled disputes between themselves with honour duels, which often ended with the death of one of the combatants. If facing capture, many warriors took lethal poison rather than fall into the hands of enemies: extracted from the plant Ranunculus sardonia, it caused the dead man's lower jaw to set in a rictus resembling a sardonic grin -an especially unnerving sight.
Iberians served in the armies of Carthage, and later in Rome's legions.
Iberian Vettones militia infantry
Iberian spear militia
Celtiberi light skirmishes
Astures heavy spearman
Iberian heavy javelins
Long shield cavalry
Callaeci barbarian infantry
+ add this:
Round shield cavalry
The main weapons were the bow and the arrows, falcata,shield, helmet and a large spear (the Iberian sword and spear would later be adopted by Romans). The horse must have been introduced to Iberians by Indo-Europeans populations around 1,000 BC. When Romans conquered the peninsula, they introduced units of Iberian chivalry in the Roman army
Iberian round shield
Re: Asgaroths Research
was an ancient kingdom, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula,bordered by Epirus to the west,Paeonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of Classical Greek affairs, to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world, occurred under the reign of Philip II. For a brief period, after the conquests of Alexander the Great, it became the most powerful state in the world, controlling a territory that included the former Persian empire, stretching as far as the Indus river; at that time it inaugurated the Hellenistic period of Ancient Greek civilization.
Ancient Macedonians have fought between themselves for territory.
The ancient Macedonians were an arrogant nation. Every spring the Ancient Macedonians were starting war with the neighboring tribes. Main targets were Illyria and the coastal Greek (Hellenistic) colonies (by this fact no one can say that the ancient Macedonians were a Greek people).
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:The greek cities,Thrace,Illyrians
The greek cities & Thrace:"The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of the country, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus."."Using diplomacy, Philip the II pushed back Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3,000 Athenian hoplites"
Illyrians:"Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, Bardillys.However, this did not prevent him from marching against them in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died "
FACTION LEADER NAMES
Most important leaders:
Perseus(last king of Macedonia.After Perseus's defeat at the Battle of Pydna in 167 BC, Macedon was divided into four republics under Roman domination)
Alexander III the Great(by the age of thirty was the creator of one of the largest empires in ancient history, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas.He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of the most successful commanders of all time)
Philip II( Father of Alexander the great.His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissa, an exceedingly long spear, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia..Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas,and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes.-click on it to see)
Perdiccas I(first king of Macedon,founder of Aegae-firs Macedonian capital)
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Demetrius I Poliorcetes
Antigonaus II Gonatas
Demetrius II Aetolicus
Antigonus III Doson
Macedonian border map-strating position-Larissa and Corinth not under Macedonian rule!
more greek cities
maps of Macedon showing the position of the first capital-Aegae(first map-red)
Most important cities:
Aegae(First Macedonian capital)
Pella(second macedonian capital-Transferring the capital of the kingdom from Aegae to Pella in around 400 B. C., King Archelaus made it the greatest of all Macedonian cities. Grandiosity characterized the whole structure of the city. The palace complex alone, situated on the hill dominating the city, occupied 60.000 sq. meters. )
Pydna(The first settlement of the regionand important major port)
The Macedonians might have originally possessed their own, native pantheon which was later Hellenized through the adoption of Greek deities.Thaulos (god of war), Gyga (later equated with Athena), Gozoria (goddess of hunting), Zeirene (goddess of love), Xandos (god of light), Totoes (god of sleep), Darron (god of healing), Arestos (local version of Heracles), Bedu (god of water or air).
The Macedonians worshipped the Olympic Pantheon, especially Zeus, Artemis, Heracles and Dionysus:
Zeus-Father of God and men,he is the god of sky and thunder.
Artemis-goddess of thehunz,wild animals,wilderness,childbirth,virginity and young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women.
Heracles-Son of Zeus.He was a demigod(half god-half human)worshiped by the people of ancient greece
Dionysus-god of grape harwest,winemaking and wine.
Used alot of phalanx(sarissa equiped) units!
Macedonian chalkispides(more black color on them!)
Macedonian heavy phalangites
Macedonian hypaspists or macedonian sword infantry
Macedonian armored hoplites
Macedonian heavy cavalry
levy hoplites(give them black clothes)
militia pikeman(new unit)
macedonian elite pikeman
Macedonian shield symbols
Re: Asgaroths Research
Was the land inhabited by the Dacians or Gatae as they were known by the Greeks.
They became independent in 1-2 BC,before that they were part of Thrace!
Dacians (or Getae) were North Thracian tribes!
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Germans,Sarmatians,Thrace
Thrace-"Ancient chronicles recorded Dromichaetes victory over Lysimachus, King of Thrace, former general of Alexander the Great who held a fortress at Tirizis".
Dacian tribes had both peaceful and military encounters with other neighboring tribes, such as Celts(mostly Gauls), Ancient Germanics, Sarmatians and Scythians, but were most influenced by the Ancient Greeks and Romans.
Moskon(had close relations with the local Greek colonies and adopted the Greek style of administration.)
Burebista(Under his rule Dacia was strongest)
Border map of Dacia
Sarmizegetusa(was the capital and the most important military, religious and political center of Dacians. Erected on top of a 1,200 meter high mountain, the fortress was the core of the strategic defensive system in the Orăştie Mountains.)-as you can see I couldn't find the exact position on the map-I couldn't find better maps of Dacian that these.
Dacians used stone walls!!!!
Couldn't find more gods that aren't already thracian!
Zamolxis-Most highest god of the Dacins,he was the god of the sky and the rain.
Bendis-goddess of the moon and of the night.
Derzelas-the god of the vital energy.
dacian column bases used to support a temple
Was influenced by both roman and greek armies.
Warband(add some hats to the head)
Flaxmen(you can add clothes so that these are different from the thracians)
Dacian noble cavalry
Barbarian chiftain cavalry
Dacian light horsemen
getai forest warband
Dacian archer warband
Heavy archers(put then some helmet like these choosen archers)
dacian militia hoplites
Re: Asgaroths Research
was created out of the eastern conquests of the former Macedonian Empire of Alexander the Great.
The Seleucid Empire was a major centre of Hellenistic culture which maintained the preeminence of Greek customs and where a Macedonian political elite dominated, mostly in the urban areas.
Capture(number)settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Armenia,Atropatene Kingdom,Macedon,Thrace,Ptolemaic Empire
Armenia-"invasion on the Empire by Armenian king Tigranes the Great"
Atropatene-"Much of the eastern part of the empire was conquered by the Parthians(that later occupied Atropatene) under Mithridates I of Parthia"
Macedon & Thrace-"Seleucus expanded his control to encompass western Anatolia. He hoped further to take control of Lysimachus' lands in Europe – primarily Thrace and even Macedonia itself, but was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus on landing in Europe."
Ptolemaic Empire-Syrian wars(war between the Seleucids and Ptolemaic empire)
SELEUCID LEADER NAMES
Seleucus I Nicator(founder of the seleucid empire,one of Alexander the Great's generals)
Seleucus IV Philopator(Thrace added to the Seleucid Empire; Seleucus is governor.Seleucus besieges Rome's ally Pergamon, captures the Roman commander Lucius Cornelius Scipio, takes part in the Battle of Magnesia (Roman victory)).
Antiochus I Soter(went in war with Ptolemaic empire)
Antiochus II Theos
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus III Keraunos
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus V Eupator
Demetrius I Soter
Alexander I Balas
Demetrius II Nicator
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Alexander II Zabinas
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator
Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus
Philip I Philadelphus
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator
Antiochus XII Dionysus
Anthiocus XIII Asiaticus
Philip II Philoromaeus
Citie map-shows cities of the greek world
Babylon(One of the wonders is situated in this city-The hanging gardens of Babylon)
Seleucia(Seleucia, as such, was founded in about 305 BC, when an earlier city was enlarged and dedicated as the first capital of the Seleucid Empire by Seleucus I Nicator.Standing at the confluence of the Tigris River with a major canal from the Euphrates, Seleucia was placed to receive traffic from both great waterways)
Two major religions were present in the Empire-Zoroastrianism and Greek paganism.Other religious groups were present in the empire,although not as prominent,Included hindus and jews(after they conquere Damascus and the southern part to Jerusalem).The administration was very tolernt of various religions.In order to preserve order,the empire will have to accept haveing multiple religious groups within their border to promote national unity
and prevent rebellions.
Apollo-was the highest greek god worshiped in Seleucid Empire.he was the god of beauty and Sun.
Zoroaster-shrine dedicated to the founder of Aveste( like in RTW-Partiha)
Hephaestus-he was the god of technology,blacksmiths,craftsmen,artisans,sculptor s,metals,metallurgy,fire and volcanoes.
Askelpios-God of medicine and healing
As with many of the Hellenistic states that formed after the death of Alexander the Great, the Seleucid armies were based on the Macedonian model and its troops were primarily of Greco-Macedonian origin. Since the Seleucid realm covered much of the eastern portions of the former Persian Empire, its kings had to rely on Eastern people to man its army. They relied on troops that used the Macedonian phalanx, archers from the Eastern peoples and cavalry. Also, the Seleucids had a supply of Indian war elephants which was used to cause fear amongst their enemies. Like the Ptolemies with their wealth, the Seleucid kings had managed to recruit all kinds of people as mercenaries from the Indians living on the Indus to the people of Crete and Galatia. With their wars against Rome, the Seleucids attempted to create units of troops that copied the Roman legions. By 63 B.C.E.,
the Seleucid Empire along with its army had disbanded. Many of the heavy cavalry was rumored to join the Roman armies in Asia.
Silver shield pikeman
Silver shield chalkispides
Armored war elephant
Seleucid sword infantry
Seleucid heavy peltasts(give them standard seleucid grey color)
Seleucid heavy cavalry
cataphract heavy cavalry
Re: Asgaroths Research
It was founded when Ptolomey I Soter declared himself Pharoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state stretching from southern Syria to Cyrene and south to Nubia.
Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions by marrying their siblings, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.
Capture(number)settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Seleucid empire,Nabataean Kingdom,The Greek cities(or just some cities like Corinth,Sparta,Athens and other)
Seleucid empire-Syrian wars(wars between the Ptolemaic empire and the Seleucid empire)
Nabataean Kingdom-"Some Nabataeans indulged in piracy on the Red Sea, profitably attacking the merchant ships of Ptolemaic Egypt."-so the Ptolemaic empire probably didn't like the Nabataeans,eventhough Cleopatra was an ally of the Nabataean Kingdom.
Greek cities-"in 309 BC war broke out again(between Ptolemaics and Seleucids), and Ptolemy occupied Corinth and other parts of Greece, although he lost Cyprus after a sea-battle in 306 BC."
PTOLEMIC FACTION LEADERS
Sometimes two kings would rule over the empire like for example:Cleopatra III and Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros ruled together,just that you know(for information).
Ptolemy I Soter(Founder of the Ptolemaic empire.Within a few years of rule he had gained control of Libya, Coele-Syria (including Judea), and Cyprus)
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy III Euergetes
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon
Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros
Ptolemy X Alexander
Ptolemy XI Alexander
Ptolemy XII Auletes
Cleopatra VII Philopator
Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Cleopatra V Tryphaena
Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
During the period of Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty, the construction of many Greek settlements throughout their Empire to either Hellenize new conquered peoples or reinforce the area. In Egypt, there were only three main Greek cities which were Alexandria, Naucratis, and Ptolemais.
Alexandria(Capital of the Ptolemaic empire.A major Mediterranean port of Egypt, in ancient times and still today.Contained at that time the largest library in the world. Among other thinkers associated with the Library or other Alexandrian patronage were the mathematician Euclid (ca. 300 BC), the inventor Archimedes (287 BC – c. 212 BC), and the polymath Eratosthenes ca. 225 BC.
Position of Naucratis(Highlited in red)
In trying to find a religious cult that would unite both Egyptian and Hellenic subjects, Ptolemy Soter crafted the Isis cult as it would be introduced into Greco-Roman society. Osiris was renamed Serapis and identified with a variety of Egyptian and Hellenic gods (Osiris, Apis, Dionysus, Hades). He became a god of healing and the underworld. Isis was identified with Hellenic deities such as Demeter or Aphrodite. Greek iconography was introduced to the cult which made it visually appealing to the Hellenes.
Representations of Greek gods took on new forms. The popular image of a nude Aphrodite, for example, reflects the increased secularization of traditional religion. Also prominent in Hellenistic art are representations of Dionysos, the god of wine and legendary conqueror of the East, as well as those of Hermes, the god of commerce. In strikingly tender depictions, Eros, the Greek personification of love, is portrayed as a young child.
Serapis-god of healing and underworld.
Isis-goddess of love and hunt.Isis became the protector of family (especially women), the protector of newborns, the goddess of fertility and good fortune, and the goddess whose magic could cheat Fate and Death.She was also thought to be a protector of sailors, and sailors sailing from the great port of Alexandria took her cult all over the Mediterranean.
Dionysus- god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine
Hermes-messenger of gods.He is also the god of the merchants,travelers,thieves,pastors,poets,musician s and athleticians.
Ptolemaic Egypt, along with the other Hellenistic states outside of the Greek mainland after Alexander the Great, had its armies based on the Macedonian phalanx and featured Macedonian and native troops fighting side by side.
The Ptolemaic military was filled with diverse peoples from across their territories. At first most of the military was made up of a pool of Greek settlers who, in exchange for military service, were given land grants. These made up the majority of the army.
With the many wars the Ptolemies were involved in, their pool of Greek troops dwindled and there was little Greek immigration from the mainland so they were kept in the royal bodyguard and as generals and officers. Native troops were looked down upon and distrusted due to their disloyalty and frequent tendency to aid local revolts. However, with the decline of royal power, they gained influence and became common in the military.
The Ptolemies used the great wealth of Egypt to their advantage by hiring vast amounts of mercenaries from across the known world. Black Ethiopians are also known to have served in the military along with the Galatians, Mysians and others. Jews were particularly imported as military settlers and made up as much as twenty percent of the military.
With their vast amount of territory spread along the Eastern Mediterranean such as Cyrus, Crete, the islands of the Aegean and even Thrace, the Ptolemies required a large navy to defend these far-flung strongholds from enemies like the Seleucids and Macedonians.
More yellow color on this troops
Machimoi swordsmen or native swordsmen
Ptolemaic heavy peltasts
Machimoi phalanx or Phalanx pikeman
Ptolemaic archers(yellow color)
Ptolemaic royal pikeman
Ptolemaic heavy cavalry
Macedonian heavy cavalry
Re: Asgaroths Research
Were a Celtic people living in Gaul, the region roughly corresponding to what is now France,Belgium,Switzerland and Northern Italy, from the Iron age through the Roman period. They mostly spoke the Continental Celtic language called Gaulish.
Each tribe had a council of elders, and initially a king.
Although the tribes were moderately stable political entities, Gaul as a whole tended to be politically divided, there being virtually no unity among the various tribes. Only during particularly trying times, such as the invasion of Caesar, could the Gauls unite under a single leader like Vercingetorix.
Position of Gaulish tribes in Europe and Asia Minor
capture(number)settlements and destroy or outlive fation/factions-Dacia,Thrace,Illyria,Rome
Dacia & Thrace & Illyria-"The Celts made their first expedition under the command of Cambaules; they got as far as Thrace, but despaired of the way ahead as they realized there were only a few of them and they were no match for the Greeks in terms of numbers.When they decided a second time to carry arms against foreign countries (driven most of all by veterans of Cambaules' campaign who had tasted piracy and fallen in love with the loot and rape of the world), they came in a mass of infantry and a very considerable throng of cavalry as well. The commanders divided the army into three parts, each to advance into a different country.Cerethrius was to lead against the Thracians and Triballians,while Brennus and Acichorius commanded the advance into Paeonia; Bolgius marched against the Macedonians and Illyrians and undertook a struggle with Ptolemy, who at that time was king of Macedonia."
Rome-this is clear to all why is Rome
GALLIC LEADER NAMES
Ambiorix-leader of a Belgic tribe(Belgae) of north-eastern Gaul (Gallia Belgica), where modern Belgium is located.He became a Belgian national hero because of his resistance against Julius Caesar, as written in Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico.
Vercingetorix-was the chiftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the Gauls in an ultimately unsuccessful revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
Dumnorix-was a chieftain of the Aedui, a Celtic tribe in gaul in the 1st century B.C. He was strongly against alliance with the Romans, particularly Julius Caesar who sparred with him on several occasions.
this is the best map of the cities I could find
Gregovia-chief town and strong fortress of the Arverni.
Alesia-capital of the Mandubii, one of the Gaulish tribes allied with the mighty Aedui
Gaul province map
The Gauls practiced a form of animism, ascribing human characteristics to lakes, streams, mountains, and other natural features and granting them a quasi-divine status. Also, worship of animals was not uncommon; the animal most sacred to the Gauls was the BOAR(that's why it appears in RTW faction symbols and banners), which can be found on many Gallic military standards, much like the Roman eagle.
Celtic/Gallic religion was nature based (trees, water, etc.), what neopagans now call "earth spirituality".
Teutates-god of trade and protector of the tribes
Dis Pater-god of agriculture and the harvest time.
Arduinna-goddess of forest and hunting
Andarta- goddess of fertility. Andarta was the patron goddess of the Vocantii tribe. She should not be confused with the British goddess of war, Andrasta.
Aveta-goddess of birth. She was also the patron goddess of midwifery.
Belenus-God of fire and Sun.Belenus was a popular deity, particular in Italy, Noricum (Switzerland and Austria) and Gaul (France).
Borvo-god of healing. Borvo was also identified with therapeutic spring and mineral bath.
Brigindo-goddess of arts, crafts, fertility, and possibly of war. Her name means "Exalted One" or "High One".Also called Brigandu,she was a popular goddess throughout the Celtic world.
Cernunnos-god of nature, and probably of fertility of animals and agriculture. Cernunnos was also god of grains and fruits.
Lenus-was the Celtic god of healing, worshipped by the Celts throughout Continental Europe, but particularly by the Treveri, where inscriptions were found.
Esus-god associated with blood-sacrifice and hanging.Blood sacrifices were made to the god among the Ligurian and Treveri tribes.
Lugus-god of light or of the sun.Several cities were named after him, Lugdunum (Lyon) in southern France, Lugdunum Batavorum (Leiden) in the Netherland, and Luguvallium (Carlisle) in northern England.
Nantosuelta-goddess of nature, valley and streams.Her symbol was also the raven, which linked her with the dead and the Underworld.
Ogminos-god of strength.His equivalent was Hercules.
Rigisamus-god of war.
Rosmerta-goddess of fertility and abundance.
Rudiobus-god of the horses
Sequana-river goddess. Sequana was a tutelary goddess of the Sequanae tribe, who occupied territory between the SaÃ´ne, RhÃ´ne and Rhine rivers. Sequana was also a goddess of healing.
Sirona-Goddess of healing springs.
Smetrios-god of war. Smetrios was the tutelary deity of the Treveri.
Sucellus-god of agriculture,forest,alcoholic drinks,feast and providence.He was particularly worshiped by the Boii and Arverni.
Taranis-god of rain, storm and thunder.
Teutates-god of war, wealth and fertility.
Vosegus-was an eponym or personification of the Vosges, a region with mountains and forests in eastern France. Vosegus was a god of nature or the animals in that region. Vosegus had been depicted carrying a pig under his arm.
Gaullic light cavalry
Celtic heavy infantry
Celtic light cavalry
Aedui heavy swordsmen
Arverni Heavy chariots
Celtic archer warband
Gaullic heavy infantry
Gaulic light infantry
Gaullic fanatic axeman
Celtic noble cavalry
Gaullic archer warband
Gaullic spear warband
Celtic spear warband
Gaullic heavy spearman(use the choosen swordsmen-give them a spear and a oval shield)
Gaullic light spearman
Gaullic heavy axeman
helmet,suit and shield
Celtic iron age horn helmet
Re: Asgaroths Research
Were of Celtic origin!
They were capable of advanced mathematical calculations and laid out stone circles (ovals actually) with such accuracy that they functioned as calendars. Many circles still exist today. However, ancient Britons have left us no written records, so we have to guess much of what went on.
In due course, neighbouring tribes joined together to form local kingdoms. As the centuries passed, stone weapons became bronze ones, and then iron (each progressively sharper or stronger than the last). Excavations at royal grave sites have unearthed swords, spears, helmets, and shields crafted to an extremely high standard, but the ordinary folk had to make do with whatever they could get.
The map on the left shows all the major Celtic (Brythonic) tribes of the British mainland.
It should be noted that only the main Brythonic (ie P-Celtic-speaking) tribes of the mainland are shown. There were several smaller tribes whose existence were known and who were either isolated geographically from the main tribes, or allied to them but these are not presented here.
One of the main sources of information about these tribes is from the Roman writer, Tacitus and much of our information about the tribes of Scotland derives from the geographical writings of Ptolemy. However, both authors were writing from a Roman viewpoint and their works have to be treated with some caution when it comes to their descriptions of the tribes, their beliefs and attributes.
The Trinovantes are the first British tribe to be mentioned by a Roman author, appearing in Caesar's account of his invasion of 54 BC. By this date they seem to have been already involved in a power struggle with the neighbouring tribes to the west who were to be forged into the kingdom of the Catuvellauni under Tasciovanus. This group shared the same ways of life and religious practices as the Catuvellauni and Cantiaci.
They used coins, cremated their dead, ate from plates and drank from cups, They became part of the large kingdom established by the rules of the Catuvellauni.
The king Cunobelinus essentially absorbed the two tribes into one larger kingdom and he or his predecessors, established Colchester as a new royal site on the same model as St Albans. It was Colchester, that became the target for the Roman Emperor Claudius' invasion in AD43.
After the Roman Conquest, the Trinovantes were restored as tribal entity in the form of a civitas (an administrative unit or county) within the new Roman Province. The capital of the civitas was the Roman city of Colchester, which was originally founded as colony for retired Roman soldiers.
The Catuvellauni were the tribe that lived in the modern counties of Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire. Their territory also probably included tribes in what is today Buckinghamshire and parts of Oxfordshire. The tribal name possibly means 'good in battle'.
The Catuvellauni existed as a tribe at the time of Julius Caesar, but in the following years became an extremely powerful group. Their first known king was Tasciovanus, who is known from the coins he minted with his name on them. He founded a royal and ritual centre at Verulamium, modern St Albans in about AD10. There were several other large settlements or clusters of villages in their territory, such as at Baldock and Welwyn.
Before this time, the Catuvellauni, Trinovantes and Cantiaci were very different from other British tribes. They had been using coins for at least a century, adopted the same way of burying the dead as was practised in northern France, and eat and dressed in ways more common in France than other parts of Briton. Tasciovanus successors created a large kingdom through conquest and alliance that included the Trinovantes and Cantiaci.
The most successful king was Cunobelinus (Cymbeline), but after his death in the late 30's AD, his kingdom was beset by rivalries between his successors. This was the excuse used by the Roman Emperor Claudius to conquer southern Britain in 43 AD. The Catuvellauni were one of the most pro-Roman of British peoples who very quickly and peacefully adopted Roman lifestyles and Roman rule.
A very rich grave of a pro-Roman Catuvellaunian ruler who lived at the time of the Roman Conquest has been excavated at Folly Lane, St Albans. They became one of the first civitas in the new province, Verulamium becoming one of the first and most successful cities in Roman Britain.
Several Roman authors including Pliny, Ptolemy and Tacitus mention this tribe and later civitas (administrative unit in a Roman province). Their territory was south east Wales - the Brecon Beacons and south Welsh valleys. A people of the mountains and valleys, we know relatively little about how they lived.
Like the other tribes of the Welsh Mountains, they were difficult for the Romans to conquer and control. For a time in the period around AD 45-57, they led the British opposition to the Roman advance westwards.
Tacitus describes them as a strong and warlike nation, and for ten years or more the Romans fought to contain, rather than conquer them. Although defeated and occupied by the early 60's, their bitter resistance may explain the late grant of self governing civitas status to them only in the early 2nd century.
The capital was established at a previously unoccupied site at Caerwent and was given the name Venta Silrum. Tacitus described them as swarthy and curly-haired, and suggested their ancestors might be from Spain because of the similarities in appearance with some peoples in Spain. However, there is no evidence to suggest any genetic links between south Wales and parts of Spain.
BRITANNIC TRIBES GOALS
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Gaullic tribes
I left like it was in rome total war.i did find some information that Britannic tribes did invaded Gaulish and German teritories,but with no strong evidence like in past posts.
BRITANNIC TRIBES LEADER NAMES
List of kings before Britannia was occupied by the Romans:
Rud Hud Hudibras
Lludd Llaw Ereint(the silver handed)
Bran Fendigaid(the Blessed)
BRITANNIC TRIBES CITIES
Most cities were situated on the hill.The one element of Iron Age warfare still visible today are the hill forts. These consist of a concentric series of ditches and banks, the latter surmounted by stout fences, enclosing the summit of a large hill. Sometimes, the entrance followed a winding route through the banks to expose an attacker to a constant rain of missiles.
BRITANNIC TRIBES RELIGION
Affalach-god of the underworld.
Anu-Mother-Goddess,goddess of fertility,the wife of the Sun God, Belenos, and considered to be the ancestor of all the Gods.She was also patroness of springs and fountains.
Liyr-Sea god.According to the Welsh, he was chief of the gods.
Bran-god of regeneration
Maponos-god of youth
Modron-goddess of motherhood.
Nantosuelta-goddess of the home.
Nemetona-goddess of the sacred grow.
Nodens-god with health & healing
Sucellos-god of agriculture
BRITANNIC TRIBES ARMY(Many blue paintings on units or tattoos!!!)
Warpaint:According to Caesar, "omnes vero se Britanni vitro inficiunt, quod caeruleum efficit colorem". This translates to: "All the Britons stain themselves with woad, which produces a blue colour". This passage is the most famous evidence for Ancient British warpaint.
Tattoos : Herodian writes of the Picts in his History, "They also tattoo their bodies with various patterns and pictures of all sorts of animals."
Modern day guy makes a tribal british tattoo
Iron age british warrior tattoos
Description of warriors:With their trademark spiky limed hair, magnificently droopy moustaches and painted with woad battle-markings, these warriors were as colourful as they were ferocious. The British, led by the dark and terrifying Druidic cult, still favored the chariots as a key part of their armies as they struck fear into the hearts of the Roman invaders. There is a famous account of Romans not wanting to leave their boat to tackle the frenzied British with their Druid leaders on the shores of Britain- it took a standard bearer to throw his standard ashore and thus driving his companions to go and protect it to break the spell!.
Celtic warriorâ€™s basic equipment consisted of a set of one to four spears. One was a 1.8 meters long fighting spear called a "lancea" that sometimes had very large spearheads of up to 50 centimetres in length. The others were shorter throwing spears called "gaesum" with relatively small, normally shorter than 10 centimetres long spearheads. A warrior also had a largeâ€”about 1.2 meter high and 0.5 meters wideâ€”leather-covered, wooden shield with a metal shield-boss. This was likely to have been decorated with painting and sometimes metal ornamentation. With this basic equipment, the average warrior usually wore his everyday clothing consisting of trousers, a shirt, and a mantle.
Celtic noble, besides his torc (neck ring), was a long-sword with a blade-length of about 0.8 to 1 meter. Those from the early period had definite swordpoints, enabling them to be used for slashing and piercing. In the later period, these swords often had rounded points that allowed only slashing attacks. In rare cases, especially in finds from the eastern Celtic world, such swords had anthropomorphic handles, the pommel most often cast from bronze in the form of a human head. Additionally, the typical noble warrior probably wore armor and helmet, all made from leather. Depending on how rich they were, nobles might have equipment such as helmets, made from bronze or iron, often elaborately decorated with ornamentation and inlays of coral or even gold. Occasionally, the helmet might have additional embellishments such as the one from the famous find at Ciumesti, Romania, which has a figure of a raven with mobile wings fixed to its crest. That helmet must have been an impressive sight when the owner moved down the battlefield. Chainmail suits, covering the body down to the knees and, most often, leaving the arms free, were very rare, and, obviously affordable by only the wealthiest nobles.
British noble infantry
British noble cavalry
Celtic battle chariot
Even though it was not used always and everywhere in the Celtic world, the battle-chariot is considered a very typical part of Celtic warfare. It was called a "carpentom" or similar term, and was a light, two-wheeled vehicle drawn by a pair of yoked horses, little more than four meters in length and less than two meters wide. The chariot consisted almost exclusively of organic material; the main metal parts were the iron tires and the iron fittings to strengthen the hubs. In some cases, metal rings and connectors were used to strengthen joints and flexible connections. What made the Celtic chariot so special, however, was that the chariot-platform was not fixed to the axle but hung free in a rope suspension. This made it a lot more comfortable to drive and a lot easier to fight from.
Usually two persons rode in the chariot. The charioteer sat in the open front of the chariot and actually drove. The warrior stood behind the charioteer and threw his spears from the chariot before alighting and fighting on foot. The charioteer stayed close enough to retrieve his warrior and carry him away from the battle if he were wounded or killed. This system is well documented in the Irish Ulster Cycle, as well as in the works of Roman and Greek historians.
Celtic heavy chariot
Celtic warrior bands
Also quite typical among the Celts were warrior-bands like the Irish fianna or the Gaesates who fought in the Italian Wars against the Romans. Such warbands consisted mainly of young men led by charismatic leaders like the Irish Fionn Mac Cumhaill or the two kings of the Gaesates. The latter seem to have been used as high response troops in battle, according to the Roman sources. Most probably these groups had a religious dimension, requiring various initiation rituals for membership. They most probably enjoyed a special status in Celtic society. Members of these warrior bands probably were known for performing heroic feats. For example, historians recorded that the Gaesates fought naked in the battles in the Po valley in Italy where the Cisalpine Celts opposed the Romans. Most notably these warbands seem to have consisted mostly or even exclusively of infantry.
The Nature of Celtic Warfare
The Celts fought many battles. Some involved rather small numbers of combatants, but there were also mass battles in which at least tens of thousands or perhaps even hundreds of thousands participated, if we believe the numbers reported by various ancient historians. However, in contrast to the rigid Roman military organisation, Celtic warriors seem to have been much less used to fighting in formations and organized units. The records we have from ancient historians paint the picture of mostly unorganised groups.
The ancient Celtic warriors engaged their enemy as if they would defeat them simply by overrunning them, trusting their brute force more than elaborate tactics and clever strategies. This may well be due to a trait of Celtic mentality, which valued individual prowess with arms and heroic feats more than fighting in tight groups and trusting in the combined power of many men in close military formations.
Military organisation seems to have been based, in case of the infantry, more on where one came from than the type of weapons one carried, although chariots and/or cavalry were set aside to fight together. The warbands, who were most likely the high response troops of the Celts, often formed the first line of the infantry, hurling themselves upon the enemy in the first assault.
In battles, the Celts also made use of what has been dubbed "psychological warfare." Before actually engaging the enemy, they are said to having made a horrible noise by clashing their weapons against their shields, crying and singing, with horns (carnyx) being blown and maybe drums being beaten. In the early period, these practices, together with the wild onslaught by the first lines of warriors, seems to have shocked Roman troops so that much that they simply gave way and fled from the field in fear for their lives.
Also, before the actual fight, the Celtic war leaders paraded in front of their troops, performing heroic feats, proclaiming their own deeds, belittling their enemies, and challenging enemy leaders to duels. The results of these individual combats were apparently regarded as omens of the outcome of the battle.
However fierce that first onslaught, the ancient Celts had, according to the ancient historians, little endurance. If their first assault didnâ€™t succeed, the Celtic forces were easy to defeat, or so the historians say. On the other hand, the historians might have been perpetuating the image of the Celts as barbarians by ascribing superior physical strength but less endurance to them, especially since endurance was regarded as one of the primary Roman virtues.
Evidently, to actually defeat the Celts was not as easy as the ancient historians wanted their readers to believe, since quite a number of reports tell us that the Celts continued to fight valiantly to the end, even when the battle already was lost. Often the Celts were depicted as killing themselves and their close relatives rather than surrendering and being sold into slavery.
However, the most of the battles seem to have been rather small, involving only a few warriors on both sides.
British light cavalry
British heavy cavalry
Caledonian head hunters
Re: Asgaroths Research
REPUBLIC OF CARTHAGE
was founded as a Phoenician colony near modern Tunis. After the fall of its mother-city Tyre in 575, Carthage became the leader of the Phoenician colonies in the west and founded an informal but powerful empire, which is known for its almost perennial struggle against the Greeks of Sicily and the Romans.
The trade of Carthaginian merchantmen was by land across the Sahara and especially by sea throughout the Mediterranean and far into the Atlantic to the tin-rich islands of Britain and to West Africa. There is evidence that at least one Punic expedition under Hanno sailed along the West African coast to regions south of the Tropic of Cancer, describing how the sun was in the north at noon.
Capture(number) of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Rome,Iberians,Numidians
Rome-Punic wars-" The first external war waged by the Romans against the Carthaginians in reference to Sicily was waged in Sicily"
Iberia & Numidia-"In Carthage, politicians who preferred a less friendly policy towards Rome became more powerful again, and it was decided to conquer Iberia, where a new army could be created.
The general in charge of this project was Hamilcar Barca. At home, he received support from the leader of the democratic politician Hasdrubal, surnamed "The Fair", who was married to Hamilcar's daughter.
In 237, the two men went to Gades (Cadíz), and embarked upon the campaign. Later, Hasdrubal returned to Africa. Here, he conducted another campaign, directed at Numidia."
CARTHAGE LEADER NAMES
Note-In 480 BC, following Hamilcar I's death, the king lost most of his power to an aristocratic Council of Elders. In 308 BC, Bomilcar attempted a coup to restore the monarch to full power, but failed, which led to Carthage becoming in name as well as in fact a republic!
Hasdrubal I(lunched an expedition against Sardinia-25 year struggle)
Hannibal Barca( He is generally considered to be one of the greatest military commanders of all time.
Hanno the Great
Hanno II the Great
Hanno III the Great
Border map of Carthage
Sicily map with some settlements
More cities and some battles
Carthago Nova-"Hasdrubal founded a new capital in Iberia, called New Carthage, on a peninsula with two excellent harbors, and not too far from a silver mine. From this base, he proceeded to the north, conquering many towns, including Hemeroscopium, Alonis, and Alicante, which were Greek colonies that belonged to Massilia, an ally of Rome."
Carthage(Capital city.Carthage was built on a promontory with inlets to the sea to the north and south. The city's location made it master of the Mediterranean's maritime trade. All ships crossing the sea had to pass between Sicily and the coast of Tunisia, where Carthage was built, affording it great power and influence.
Two large, artificial harbours were built within the city, one for harbouring the city's massive navy of 220 warships and the other for mercantile trade. A walled tower overlooked both harbours.
The city had massive walls, 23 miles (37 kilometres) in length, longer than the walls of comparable cities. Most of the walls were located on the shore and thus could be less impressive, as Carthaginian control of the sea made attack from that direction difficult. )
Carthage derived the original core of its religion from Phoenicia. The Phoenician pantheon was presided over by the father of the gods, but a goddess was the principal figure in the Phoenician pantheon. The system of gods and goddesses in Phoenician religion also influenced many other cultures. There are too many similarities to be overlooked. In some instances the names of gods underwent very little change when they were borrowed. Even the legends maintained major similarities. Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Persian and others had their influences on the Phoenician faith system as well as borrowed from it.
Adon-the god of Youth Beauty and Regeneration.
Anath- the goddess of Love and War, the Maiden (similar to Greek Aphrodite).
Asherath-the Goddess of Byblos.
Astarte-the Queen of Heaven (similar to Greek Hera).
Baal-the Ruler of the Universe, Son of Dagan, Rider of the Clouds, Almighty, Lord of the Earth (similar to Greek Zeus or Roman Jupiter).
Baal-Hamon-the God of Fertility and Renewer of all energies in the Phoenician colonies of the Western Mediterranean (similar to Greek Kronos or, in some ways, Zeus).
Eshmun-the God of Healing.
Kathirat-Goddesses of marriage and pregnancy.
Kothar-God of Craftsmanship.
Melqarth-King of the Underworld and Cycle of Vegetation.
Mot-the God of Death.
Shahar-the God of Dawn.
Shalim- the God of Dusk.
Shapash-the Sun Goddess.
Tanit-Queen Goddess of Carthage, the Mother Goddess, Queen of Good Fortune and the Harvest.
Yamm-the God of the Sea.
Yarikh-the Moon God.
According to Polybius, Carthage relied heavily, though not exclusively, on foreign mercenaries,especially in overseas warfare. The core of its army was from its own territory in north Africa (ethnic Libyans and Numidians, as well as "Liby-Phoenicians" — i.e. Phoenicians proper). These troops were supported by mercenaries from different ethnic groups and geographic locations across the Mediterranean who fought in their own national units;Celtic,Balearic, and Iberian troops were especially common. Later, after the Barcid conquest of Iberia, Iberians came to form an even greater part of the Carthaginian forces. Carthage seems to have fielded a formidable cavalry force, especially in its north African homeland; a significant part of it was composed of Numidian contingents of light cavalry. Other mounted troops included the now extinct North African Elephants, trained for war, which, among other uses, were commonly used for frontal assaults or as anti-cavalry protection. An army could field up to several hundred of these animals, but on most reported occasions fewer than a hundred were deployed. The riders of these elephants were armed with a spike and hammer to kill the elephants in case they charged toward their own army.
They did some longe speared units,so don't remove them!...like in the rtw(poeni infantry,sacred band)
Spanish heavy infantry(scutari)
Numidian light cavalry
balearic light infantry
Carthaginian light infantry
Punic veteran infantry
Sacred band(with spear)
Carthaginian war elephant
Round shield cavalry
Long shield cavalry
Poeni infantry(change the shield of the guy to the right to look more like the shield of the units to the
Punic heavy infantry
The navy of Carthage was one of the largest in the Mediterranean, using serial production to maintain high numbers at moderate cost. The sailors and marines of the Carthaginian navy were predominantly recruited from the Punic citizenry, unlike the multi-ethnic allied and mercenary troops of the Carthaginian armies. The navy offered a stable profession and financial security for its sailors.Their navy included some 300 to 350 warships. The Romans, who had little experience in naval warfare prior to the First Punic War, managed to finally defeat Carthage with a combination of reverse engineering captured Carthaginian ships, recruitment of experienced greek sailors from the ranks of its conquered cities, the unorthodox corvus device, and their superior numbers in marines and rowers.
CARTHAGINIAN SHIELD SYMBOLS
Re: Asgaroths Research
The Teutoburg forest-the site of the famous battle
In the year 500 BC, the Germanic tribes appear in northern Germany.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic in older literature) are a historical ethno-linguistic group, originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Indo-Euopean Germanic languages, which diversified out of common Germanic in the course of the Pre-roman iron age. The descendants of these peoples became, and in many areas contributed to,ethnic groups in North Western Europe:Scandinavians (Danes,Swedes,Norwegians,Icelanders, and Faroe Islanders, but not Finns and Sami),Germans (including Austrians, German-speaking Swiss, and other ethnic Germans),Dutch,Flemish, and English, among others.
Julius Caesar describes the Germans in his Commentarii De Bello Gallico:
"[The Germans] have neither Druids to preside over sacred offices, nor do they pay great regard to sacrifices. They rank in the number of the gods those alone whom they behold, and by whose instrumentality they are obviously benefited, namely, the sun, fire, and the moon; they have not heard of the other deities even by report. Their whole life is occupied in hunting and in the pursuits of the military art; from childhood they devote themselves to fatigue and hardships. Those who have remained chaste for the longest time, receive the greatest commendation among their people; they think that by this the growth is promoted, by this the physical powers are increased and the sinews are strengthened. And to have had knowledge of a woman before the twentieth year they reckon among the most disgraceful acts; of which matter there is no concealment, because they bathe promiscuously in the rivers and [only] use skins or small cloaks of deer's hides, a large portion of the body being in consequence naked".
"They do not pay much attention to agriculture, and a large portion of their food consists in milk, cheese, and flesh; nor has any one a fixed quantity of land or his own individual limits; but the magistrates and the leading men each year apportion to the tribes and families, who have united together, as much land as, and in the place in which, they think proper, and the year after compel them to remove elsewhere. For this enactment they advance many reasons-lest seduced by long-continued custom, they may exchange their ardor in the waging of war for agriculture; lest they may be anxious to acquire extensive estates, and the more powerful drive the weaker from their possessions; lest they construct their houses with too great a desire to avoid cold and heat; lest the desire of wealth spring up, from which cause divisions and discords arise; and that they may keep the common people in a contented state of mind, when each sees his own means placed on an equality with [those of] the most powerful."
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:Rome,Scythia,Dacia,...
Rome-Cimbrian War (113-101BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and the Proto-Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons (Teutones), who migrated from northern Europe into Roman controlled territory, and clashed with Rome and her allies. The Cimbrian War was the first time since the Second Punic War that Rome itself had been seriously threatened.
Scythia&Dacia-I haven't found no writen evidence of wars with this factions...But judgeing from the map below we can assume that they were tending to spread into this factions's lands.
The expansion of German tribes
Red-Settlements before 750 BC
Orange-New settlements after 750 BC until 1 AD
Yellow-New settlements until 100 AD
Green-New settlements after 100 AD
GERMANIC LEADER NAMES(I can't find other leaders than these two.It is really hard)
Arminius(also known as Armin or Hermann was a chieftain of the Germanic Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. His influence held an allied coalition of Germanic tribes together in opposition to the Romans but after decisive defeats by the Roman general Germanicus, nephew of the Emperor Tiberius, his influence waned and he was assassinated on the orders of rival Germanic chiefs
Germanic settlements were typically small, rarely containing much more than ten households, often less, and were usually located at clearings in the wood.Settlements remained of a fairly constant size throughout the period. The buildings in these villages varied in form, but normally consisted of farmhouses surrounded by smaller buildings such as granaries and other storage rooms. The universal building material was timber. Cattle and humans usually lived together in the same house.
Map with germanic cities
Germanic paganism refers to the theology and religious practices of the Germanic people of north-western Europe from the Iron Age up until their Christianization during the Medieval period.Being pagan in nature.Germanic paganism was polytheistic, with some underlying similarities to other Indo-Europen traditions.Many of the deities found in Germanic paganism appeared under similar names across the Germanic peoples, most notably the god known to the Germans as Wodan.
Woden-god of hunting.Most highest worshiped denity among Germans.
Donar-god of lightning and thunder
Ziu-god of war and sky.
Nerthus-goddess of fertility.
Freyja-Woden's wife.Goddess of fertility and love
Volla-goddess of riches
Ermen-God of strength
Sunna-god of the Sun
The main weapon of the german infantry was the club and the spear along with looted roman equipment!
Gothic heavy cavalry
Saxon heavy cavalry
Scandinavian heavy infantry
Germanic archer warband
Germanic levy spearmen
Heavy axe warband
Chatti medium cavalry
Saxson heavy infantry
Germanic light pikeman
Saxon light infantry
Foreign spearmen(On the borders between Celtic and Germanic territories, the cultures overlap and give rise to troops that are a mesh of both cultures)
Germanic heavy pikeman
DID YOU KNOW ?
... that Pope Boniface II (papacy 530 to 532) was an Ostrogoth
... that Arminius, the Cheruscan warrior who successfully united several Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti , Bructeri , Chauci and Sicambri) to fight against and eventually defeat three Roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD, had been trained as a Roman military commander and possessed Roman citizenship ?
... that the parapets of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul are known to contain two Viking age runic inscriptions?
... that, according to Tacitus, Germanic people were piously monogamous, and that an adulteress was driven from her home by her husband wielding a whip?
... Germanic warriors would bring family members along to battles, to urge them on during the fight?
WEAPONS AND ARMOR
The ancient Germanic tribes lived in harmony with nature, and as their spiritual beliefs are based very much on the natural world, both wild and domestic beasts are highly revered. It was sensed that certain animals have special unique energies and elements of their nature and being that brought them into association with that of the various Gods and Goddesses whom they came to represent. These totem animals are often seen in dreams and visions as symbolic bearers of wisdom and might.
BEAR:The Bear is considered the greatest of all beasts, and are held sacred to Thor. Bears are considered to be similar in personality and temprement to humans as they are intelligent, curious, highly adaptable, brazen and persistant creatures, with an inate awareness of fairness and honour. A common favorite of berserkers and shape shifters, the Bear is often the totem spirit of those who are extraordinarily strong of body, mind, and soul.
BOAR:Linked to both Freyr and Frejya, the boar is traditionally associated with protection from harm. As an warriors' symbol, its body often formed the crest on helmets representing a potent sign of protection and ferocity in battle. The Wild Boar is the mightiest of the totem amimals of the Vanir. The Boar first taught mankind the arts of agriculture by showing us how to plough the Earth before "sowing" seeds by rooting up the ground with his tusks.
BOVINE:Agression and strength werehighly valued vitues to to Warrior Germanic tribes, Qualities assosiated with their most potent animal totem symbols. The untamed bull was venterated in all parts of Europe settled by the Germanic peoples, although its warlike connotations were tempered by its symbolic link to fertility and agricultural plenty that was assosiated with its counterpart the Ox.
DRAGON:The mighty Dragon is the dweller of the burial mound, and the physical and psychic embodiment the Earths natural powers of fertility. Representative of natural electromagnetic Earth energy, pictured as slithering across the skin of the earth, As the great serpent guardian of gold, the Dragon has been closely assosiated with unseen power, fertility, protection and esoteric wisdom.
EAGLE:The Eagle is considered the greatest of all birds, and is held sacred to Odin. Ancient tradition denotes that the Eagle's scream portends the birth of a heroic soul, while the mightiest of eagles sits atop the World Tree - Yggdrasil and represents the uppermost aspects of the conscious mind and is the ultimate in spiritual attainment, embodied in the Noble soul.
HORSE:The Sacred Horse is a potent symbol of intelligence, speed, grace, strength, virality, and fertillity. Its flowing mane representing the brilliant rays of the sun as the Horse is the beast which carries the wagons of the Sun and the Moon across the sky. Images of Horses appear on many early Bronze Age rock carvings depicting ancient scences of fertillity rights. The Stallion is held especially sacred to Freyr and Wotan, who would sometimes take residence in the body of a one of the Horses kept at their temples. These Horses contained cosmic wisdom and were consulted by priests who would decypher their neighs and snorts in divinity rites.
RABBIT:The motif of the rabbit is held sacred to Idunna in her contenental aspect of Eostara / Ostara, Goddess of the spring and renewer of life. As her totem animal the rabbit became a potent fertillity symbol in ancient times due to the rabbits well known ability to multiply rapidly.
RAVEN:The Raven is most closely associated with Odin, and as such, are birds of cunning, swift moving intelligence, esoteric wisdom, victory, war and death. Odin's two ravens, named Huginn and Muninn (translated as "thought" and "memory" respectively) sit at each of his shoulders and whisper in his ears all they see and hear. Shamanically, they represent the mind of the seer, flying silently through the 9 worlds of the universe, gathering hidden knowledge, gaining in wisdom, insight and inspiration. As birds of omens, the flight of ravens were used in predicting the future, while their harsh cries foretold the outcome of battles. Carrion birds associated with death, ravens will accompany the souls of the dead to the various afterworlds, and as such are blessed with the clear vision of the mysteries of life, death and rebirth.
Under the raven banners, the Viking invaders were said to be invincible against the English armies.
STAG:the Stag is a beast of noblility and Freyrs symbolic totem animal.
The symbol of the Stag went beyond its obvious Maleness and agressive qualities; the splayed antlers associated with the king of the forest because of the similaritiy to branch growth. And, like the decidious species of trees, the annual shedding of antlers in spring and autum made the Stag the embodiment of the cylical growth-decay-growth of nature. Along with the Wild Boar, the Stag was the most prized quarry of hunters.
WOLF:The Wolf is the traditional totem spirit and symbol of the hunter,warrior and magician. As such, the Wolf presents to us its dual nature of nurturing and destruction. On one side, the Wolf is the living embodyment of fury, chaos, and brute wildness. In contrast, the symbol of the wolf also represents one of the most intelligent, loyal, and sociable of animals, living and hunting in a co-operative family based pack. While the wildness of the wolf is its greatest strength, it is its' intelligence that is the wolfs' best asset which will temper, balance, and direct its feirce nature into positive action
Re: Asgaroths Research
In the fifth century BC, the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus, the author of the Histories, describes the Sauromatae as the descendants of Scythian fathers and Amazon mothers. Of course, this is a legend, but the nomadic tribe did exist and lived where Herodotus says it lived, on the plains between the Black Sea and the Caspian sea, north of the Caucasus. The river Don divided the Sauromatae and the Scythians, the famous riders from Ukraine.
During the centuries after Herodotus, the Sarmatians gradually moved to the west. A first step is mentioned in a text published under the name of the sixth-century explorer Scylax of Caryanda, but in fact written in the second half of the fourth century. It refers Syrmatae west of the Don. In the mid-third century, the tribe controled large parts of Scythia, which can be deduced from the spread of the typical Sarmatian tombs. Greek sources describe the conquered country as a desert, which may be exaggerated but testifies to the violence of the Sarmatians.
By definition, tribes are loosely organized societies and the Sarmatians were no exception. During their migration to the west, they had assimilated other ethnic groups and from now on, it is probably best to describe them as a federation of tribes. When, the Greek geographer Strabo of Amasia described Sarmatia, he mentioned four groups living between the rivers Dnepr and Danube. His description is schematic: the ethnic groups correspond to the four points of the compass.
Sarmatian society was hierarchical. There was an aristocratic warrior elite (the argaragantes), and the real work was done by the limigantes or slaves. The tribe was still nomadic, roaming over the steppes on horseback or in covered wagons, the kibitkas. Greek and Roman observers often noted that Sarmatian women did not behave as they expected: their position was better than in the Mediterranean world. The Greeks explained this strange phenomenon with the hypothesis that the Sarmatians descended from the Amazons
K.F. Smirnov suggests that Sarmatian culture was originated from two kindred cultures - the Timber Grace culture in the Volga River region and Andronovo culture located in the southern Ural steppes. The Sauromatians were the eastern neighbors of the Scythians and both were kindred tribes. The relations between the Sauromatians and the Scythians were peaceful between the 6th to 4th centuries B.C. According to Herodotus, the Sauromatians fought with the Scythians against Darius in the 5th century B.C.
Sarmatian art was strongly geometric, floral, and richly coloured. Jewelry was a major craft, expressed in rings, bracelets, diadems, brooches, gold plaques, buckles, buttons, and mounts. Exceptional metalwork was found in the tombs, including bronze bracelets, spears, swords, gold-handled knives, and gold jewelry and cups.
In Sarmatia, the most decisive decision wise is the Elder Council. There the most important decisions are made, the choosen leader, is to administrate the society in the way to achive the decisions made in the council. When new leader is choosed, he must sign Pacta Conventa, which is to be prepared by Elders, and includes the goals that the choosen leader must strive towards during his cadency.
The Leader, the oldest of the elders, is to appear to the outside world as one, inside beign equal to his fellow Elders.
Like the Scythians,Sarmatians wore long hair and beards.According to the Greek author Lucian Alans wore their hair much shorter than the Scythians.
Ammianus description of Alans:"Nearly all the Alani are men of great stature and beauty ;their hair is somewhat yellow,their eyes are frighteningly fierce"
From the 4th century BC there is archaeological evidence for a "warrior caste"in some Sarmatian tribes,centerd on tribal leaders and aristocrats.The sinews of this warrior society were the personal bond and oath of friendship and loyalty,sworn on the sword and sealed by drinking drops of each other's blood mixed with wine.
Scythians and Sarmatians
Position of Scythians,Bosporans and Sarmatians
The Suromatae-he Sauromatae were the dominant tribal group during the early period of Sarmatian history (c.600-300 BCE). They were supposed to have been descended from a mingling of Amazon women and Scythian men. The only recorded event involving them occurred in 507 BCE, when they joined the Scythians in repelling a Persian invasion.
Saii-A minor Sarmatian tribe in southwestern Ukraine.
Siraces-A tribal group which migrated to the Black Sea region from what is now Kazakhistan, settling in the Kuban region along the east coast of the Sea of Azov. The Siraces were a relatively small nation, able to muster approximately 20,000 horsemen in the mid first century BCE.
Roxolani-A tribe probably deriving their name from the proto-Iranian Raokhshna, or “shining”. The name may also derive from a term meaning, essentially, “The Western Alans”. They were among the most powerful of the Sarmatian tribes, inhabiting much of the region north of the Black Sea. The ruling dynasty of the Bosporan Kingdom (see Crimea) from the end of the 1st century BCE on was Sarmatian in origin, and probably belonged to the Roxolani originally.
Iazyges-One of the westernmost tribal groupings, inhabting Moldavia and eventually pushing their way into Thrace, northern Dacia, and Pannonia. The Iazyges were the nation with which the Romans had the most contact.
Aorsi-The easternmost of the Sarmatian nations, inhabiting the region around the lower Volga River and as far east as the Aral Sea. There may have been two Aorsi nations, one in the north and one in the south. The Chinese knew the Aorsi as “Yen-Ts’ai”.
Alans-The Alans, from whom the modern Ossetians claim descent, were a branch of the Sarmatians descended from a mélange of peoples, including Eastern tribes such as the Massagetae. The name Alan is thought to be derived from the same route as “Iran” and “Aryan” (indeed, the Ossetian self-designation is “Iron”) Some Alan tribes went west during the 300's CE and joined the Visigoths and Vandals in Spain and North Africa. The majority remained in the Caucasus region, around the Darial Pass. Their capital was Maghas (destroyed by the Golden Horde in 1339) and at various times they controlled the port city of Phasis, now in Georgia. Their kings had the title of Kundaj.
Capture(number) of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions-Dacia,Bosporan Kingdom,Armenia,Atropatene Kingdom
Dacia-"In the third century, however, the Sarmatians occupied Dacia and from now on, the war against the tribes on the north bank of the Danube was really dangerous"
Bosporan Kingdom-"They were strong enough to demand tribute from the Greek towns on the northern shores of the Black Sea. However, relations were not always bad."-So you can put them as a goal for Sarmatians if you want."
Armenia&Atropatene-"during the 1 AD the Sarmatians and Alans truly began to enter recorded history when they conducted a series of spectacular raids on their civilised neighbours.Pouring into Asia Minor,they spread devastation among the Parthians,Medians and Armenians"...This was not in the time of our mod of course but since they later actually occupied some of that area(look the map above)you can put it because that was their intention.
SARMATIAN LEADER NAMES
Each Sarmatian people had its own king.The royal list names are usually Iranian in form.
Aripharnes(king of Siraces)
Rasparagnus(king of the Roxolani)
Sangiban(king of Alans)
Spadines(king of Aorsi)
Amage(queen of the Roxolani)
Tasius(king of the Roxolani)
Abeacus(king of Siraces)
Saitapharnes(king of Saii)
Harmonia(amazon queen)-A legendary ancestor-queen ascribed to the Amazons by the Romans.
Lyssippe(amazon queen)-According to Greek sources, Lyssipe built the city of Themiscyra by Thermodon (the Sea of Azov) and introduced the worship of "Artemis" (perhaps the Anatolian mother-goddess Kybyle ?).
Ephasia Hippo(amazon queen)-Ephasia was the mythological founder of the city of Ephesus in Asia Minor
Hippolyta(amazon queen)-In myth, Hippolyta's belt was stolen by Herakles, sparking a Graeco-Amazonian war.
Antiope(amazon queen)-According to Herodotus, Antiope abdicated and fled with the Athenian king Theseus, leading to an invasion of Greece by the Amazons and their Scythian allies. There is some (but not much) archeological evidence to support the idea of an invasion of Attica from the north during this period - this may be connected to the roughly contemporaneous invasions of the "People of the Sea" at about this time)
Penthesilea(amazon queen)-Penthesilea led the Amazons in support of her ally, Priam of Troy, and was killed by the Achaean hero Achilles.
Marpesia the Invader(amazon queen)-Marpesia was said to have led an invasion of Syria and Anatolia; this may be connected to the roughly contemporaneous Cimmerian invasions of the Near East.
Leadernames of the Amazons are not fictional,but as figures they were later(as you can see)used in myths!!!
"The later "history" of the Amazons is unknown. According to tradition, they intermarried with a Scythian tribe to form a new egalitarian society, the Sauromatae. From "Sauromatae" we get the name of the second great Iranic nation (after the Scythians) to rule the steppe - the Sarmatians."
SARMATIAN CITIES(I couldn't find better maps)
The religious practices were consistant among the Sauro-Sarmatian nomads. They were typical of the clan-tribal cults of pre-Zoroastrian Iran. The gods were personified. Those gods of nature were the sky, the earth, and fire. Gods pertaining to social concepts were the domestic hearth and war. The evidence of fire cult practices is exemplified by charcoal and ashes found in the burials.
Khors is the personification of the sun, his name is believed to be of Iranian (Sarmatian?).
Simargl- god of war that was.He was depicted as a griffin (bird-like creature)
Zoroaster-like in RTW
The high amount of offensive weapons found in Sarmatian graves indicates a military-oriented nomaidc life.
They were strong enough to demand tribute from the Greek towns on the northern shores of the Black Sea. However, relations were not always bad. The Greeks traded with their neighbors and sometimes joined forces with the tribe when they felt threatened by the Scythians. These wars were very successful. The Scythians more or less disappear from history, and their country was from now on known as Sarmatia.
The most fascinating feasture of Sarmatian culture is their women warriors. Herodotus reported that the Sarmatians were said to be the offsprings of Scythians who had mated with Amazons and that their female descendants "have continued from that day to the present to observe their ancient [Amazon] customs, frequently hunting on horseback with their husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing the very same dress as the men" Moreover, said Herodotus, "No girl shall wed till she has killed a man in battle."
Both Herodotus and Hippocrates accounts inform us the Sarmatians took interest in turning their women into strong-armed huntresses and fighters. Archaeological materials seem to confirm Sarmatian women's active role in military operation and social life. Burial of armed Sarmatian women comprise large percent of the military burial in the group occupy the central position and appear the be the richest.
Lucian indicates that each leader brought with him a number of horsemen or foot soldiers and was expected to supply and equip them himself.
Not all the Scythians fled or died when the Sarmatians invaded. Some of them stayed and prospered under the new rulers. While they aren't anymore the epitome of the fiercly nomadic warior, these men fight in a manner more similar to the greeks, making them a valuable heavy cavalry force.
Sarmatian heavy archer
Roxolani steppe riders
Roxolani heavy cavalry
Sarmatian steppe lancers
Roxolani steppe lancers
Sarmatian noble horse archers
Roxolani noble horse archers
Sarmatian levy spearmen
Scythian foot archers
Steppe heavy swordsmen
Steppe heavy spearmen
Scythian noble archers
Scythian light cavalry
Sarmatian female archers
Sarmatian women horse archers
Sarmatian women noble horse archer
Scythian headhunting maiden
Sarmatian female heavy cavalry
Horse trappings and weapons of the Sarmatians were also less elaborate than those of the Scythians, but they nonetheless evidenced great skill. Sarmatian spears were longer, but knives and daggers were just as varied in style. An outstanding specialty was the Sarmatian long sword, which featured a hilt of wood with gold lacing, topped with an agate or onyx knob.
Aromor piercing three-lobed arrowhead
More other pictures
Re: Asgaroths Research
REPUBLIC OF ROME
The Roman Republic was the period in Ancient Roman history characterised by its republican form of government. It began with the overthrow of the last Roman king, Lucius Tarquinious Superbus in 509BC when Lucius Junius Brutus (ancestor of Marcus Junius Brutus) led a revolt following the rape of a noblewoman, Lucretia, at the hands of Tarquin's son. The Republic was governed by an unwritten complex constitution based on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances.
Early in the republic, all power was concentrated into the hands of the patricians, aristocratic, wealthy land holders. Plebians were anyone who was not a patrician (the equestrian class would come later), and many were just as wealthy as the patricians. These "aristocratic" plebians came to fight what has been called the "War of the Orders" with the aristocrats in charge over the next 200 years. During this time period, during the early 5th century, a tribune of Plebians was elected to protect their class's rights, and reserved the power to veo movement by the artocratic Senate. By 367 BC, the first plebian had been elected consul, and in 450 BC, the twelve tabls were published, providing the first written, fair laws in the Roman world. Despite all of these things, power still depended on wealth in Ancient Rome, and even a Plebian would have to have access to financial resources to be elected to the magistracy.
The forum, originally a marshy valley between the Quirinal and Esquiline Hills, became the focus of public and political life. It was divided down the middle by the cloaca maxima, probably originially meant to be a storm sewer or drainage ditch. By the 6th century BC it was covered, and by the 2nd century BC it was Rome's chief sewer. Shops and houses lined the forum on the northeast and southwest sides. People assembled in the Comitium, a rectangular enclosure oriented to the four points of the compass. The Senate House (curia) was built into the north end of the Comitium, as was a speaker's platform, the rostra. On the southeast end of the forum stood the regia, the former kings' palace. It was now occupied by the Pontifex Maximus and Vestal Virgins.
A great combined effort by the Latins and Greeks at the colony of Cumae overthrew the Etruscans from power south of the Tiber. Rome then became a member - and eventually leader - of a lose alliance of nations developing along the Tiber called the Latin League. Soon, however, disaster struck. Gallic tribes, who had been slowly infiltrating across the Alps into Northern Italy, crosse the Apennines and sacked Rome in 390 BC. Legend has it that only the fortified capital survived the destruction. Rome did not withstand such losses until 476 AD when WRE(western Roman Empire) stop existing and Odoaccer took control.
Rome survived, however, and quickly recovered to begin the conquest of Italy. Taking ove the Latin League, each Estruscan city slowly fell; the hill peoples followes suit. The Samnites built up the most resistance, but by 290 BC all of central Italy was under Roman rule. The Romans continued their campaign by driving the Gallic sackers out of Italy in 283 BC, and then turned south to the Greek city/states. Despite intervention by King Pyrrhus of Epirius, they were subsequently conquered in 275 BC.
Then Rome fought some its most taxing wars in its long history - the Punic Wars against the people of Carthage in North Africa (now the city of Tunis in Tunisia). The first was waged over the possession of Sicily (264-241 BC), and then against the great general Hannibal (218-201 BC). Invading Italy out of a Spanish power base in 218 BC, he won three great victories, such as that at Cannae in Apulia, 216 BC, and managed to detach much of southern Italy from Rome before his defeat by the Scipios compaigning in North Africa
The Roman senate
The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic. The senate passed decrees called senatus consulta, which in form constituted "advice" from the senate to a magistrate. While these advices did not hold legal force, they usually were obeyed in practice.If a senatus consultum conflicted with a law (lex) that was passed by an Assembly, the law overrode the senatus consultum, because the senatus consultum had its authority based in precedent, and not in law. A senatus consultum, however, could serve to interpret a law.
Through these advices, the senate directed the magistrates, especially the Roman Consuls (the chief-magistrates) in their prosecution of military conflicts. The senate also had an enormous degree of power over the civil government in Rome. This was especially the case with regards to its management of state finances, as only it could authorize the disbursal of public fund from the treasury. As the Roman Empire grew, the senate also supervised the administration of the provinces, which were governed by former consuls and praetors, in that it decided which magistrate should govern which province.
While senate meetings could take place either inside or outside of the formal boundary of the city (the pomerium), no meeting could take place more than a mile outside of the pomerium.The senate operated while under various religious restrictions. For example, before any meeting could begin, a sacrifice to the gods was made, and a search for divine omens (the auspices) was taken.
Meetings usually began at dawn, and a magistrate who wished to summon the senate had to issue a compulsory order.The senate meetings were public,and were directed by a presiding magistrate, usually a Consul.
The ethical requirements of senators were significant. Senators could not engage in banking or any form of public contract. They could not own a ship that was large enough to participate in foreign commerce,and they could not leave Italy without permission from the senate. Senators were not paid a salary. Election to magisterial office resulted in automatic senate membership.
SPQR-Senatus Populusque Romanus(Roman senat and roman people)
Capture(number)of settlements and destroy or outlive faction/factions:tribes of Gaul,Repunlic of Carthage,Greek cities-States,Kingdom of Macedonia
Tribes of Gaul-Because Rome was in war with Gauls and they at the end conquered all Gaul.
Republic of Carthage-"The Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage spanned the years from 264 - 146 B.C. With both sides well-matched, the first two wars dragged on and on; eventual victory going not to the winner of a decisive battle, but to the side with the greatest stamina. The Third Punic War was something else entirely."
Greek cities-states-"Pyrrhic wars-Sparta's one colony, Tarentum, was a wealthy commercial center with a navy, but an inadequate army. When a Roman squadron of ships arrived at the coast of Tarentum, in violation of a treaty of 302 that denied Rome access to its harbor, they sank the ships and killed the admiral and added insult to injury by spurning Roman ambassadors. To retaliate, the Romans marched on Tarentum, which had hired soldiers from King Pyrrhus of Epirus. The Pyrrhic War spanned c. 280-272."
Kingdom of Macedonia-"Rome fought 4 Macedonian Wars between 215 and 148 B.C. The first was a diversion during the Punic Wars, in the second Rome officially freed Greece from Philip and Macedonia, the third Macedonian War was against Philip's son Perseus, and the fourth Macedonian War made Macedonia and Epirus a Roman province."
ROMAN REPUBLIC LEADER AND GENERALS NAMES
Historical names of roman leaders and generals from the start to the end of the Roman Republic!
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix(former lieutenant of Marius.Hero of war with Jugurtha,Cimbri and Teutones.Participated in the Social war-first Roman to lead army agains Rome.He also plundered Athens,denuded tribunes of power and reformed cursus honorum)
Cursus honorum-sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman republic and the early Empire.
Gaius Marius(Marian reforms of the army)
Gaius Juslius Caesar(Caesar was born of an old patrician family and had been a keen and daring follower of the great general Marius (who achieved the heady heights of being made Consul seven times). He was also married to the daughter of the consul Cinna a great ally of Marius who came to government representing the people of Rome.He was a great conqueror and leader of the Roman faction and one of the greatest men throughout history)
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus&Caius Sempronius Gracchus(Agrarian reforms!)
Publicus Cornelius Scipion Africanus Major(Defeatef Hannibal)
Marcus Tullius Cicero( is rather unique in a number of ways. Most interestingly he was not a general but rather an acclaimed jurist, politician and writer/philosopher (you might roll it all into one by calling him an Orator). He became Consul, prevented the Catiline coup-d'etat, was acclaimed father of the nation but was eventually assassinated and beheaded by one of his clients at the behest of Mark Anthony and his wife Fulvia.)
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Lucius Junius Brutus
Marcus Furius Camillus
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
Pompey the Great
Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus
Lucius Cornelius Scipio
Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus
Lucius Aemilius Paullus
Publicus Cornelius Dolabella
Marcus Junius Brutus
Servilius Vatia Isauricus
Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio
Caecilius Metellus Nepos
Cornelius Lentulus Spinther
Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
Porcius Cato Uticensis
Licinius Crassus Dives
Lucius Julius Caesar
Maucius Scaevola Augur
Caecilius Metellus Numidicus
Junius Brutus Gallaecus
Caecilius Metellus Macedonius
Aemilius Paullus Macedonius
Lucius Scipio Asiaticus
Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cuncator
Cornelius Scipio Asina
Marcus Atilius Regulus
Fabius Maximus Gurges
Cornelius Scipio Scapla
Fabius Maximus Rullianus
Valerius Maximus Corvus
Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus
Quinctius Capitolius Barbatus
Marcus Fabius Vibulanus
Caius Fabius Vibulanus
Qunictius Fabius Vibulanus
ROMAN REPUBLIC CITIES
ROMAN REPUBLIC RELIGION
The origins of the Roman pantheon began with the small farming community that made up the ancient village of Rome. The foundations of the mythology included nameless and faceless deities that lended support to the community while inhabiting all objects and living things. Numen, as the belief in a pantheistic inhabitation of all things is called, would later take root in more clearly defined system of gods, but early on this belief that everything was inhabited by numina was the prevalent system.Most of the Roman gods and goddesses were a blend of several religious influences. Many of these were introduced via the Greek colonies of southern Italy and others had their roots in the Etruscan or Latin tribes of the region. In some cases the Etruscan or Latin names survived throughout the cultural existence of Rome, but many were adopted so completely that they maintained their names from other cultures.
Apollo-God of the sun and music(Appolo)
Bacchus-god of wine(Dionysus)
Ceres-goddess of the Earth(Demeter)
Cupid-god of love and lovers(Eros)
Diana-goddess of Moon and hunting(Artemis)
Fortuna-goddess of luck(/)
Janus-god of gates,doors and new beginnings(/)
Juno-Queen of the gods(Hera)
Jupiter-King of the gods.God of lightning and sky(Zeus)
Maia-goddess of growth(/)
Mars-god of war(Ares)
Mercury-Messenger of the gods(Hermes)
Minerva-goddess of wisdom(Athena)
Neptune-god of sea(Poseidon)
Pluto-King of the underworld(Hades)
Proserpina-Queen of the underworld(Persephone)
Saturn-god of agriculture(Cronus)
Uranus-god of the Heavens(Ouranos)
Venus-goddess of love(Aphrodite)
Vesta-goddess of heart(Hestia)
Vulcan-god of smithing(Hephaestus)
Victoria-goddess of victory(Nike)
ROMAN REPUBLIC ARMY
The age for joining the military was 17-46 in the Republic, and armies would be raised and disbanded as soon as possible - though quick disabnding did not always occur. Being in the army was a service, not a job.During the Marian times, soldiers had to be in the army at least 5 years before they could be given their "reward". During Augustan times there was 20 years of military service.The 25 years of military service came later in the imperial era.Roman soldiers were called legionnaires but they could also be called Auxilia. Auxilia were paid less and had fewer privileges than the legionnaires and they were non-citizen recruits and they came mostly from provinces. The legion would be his family and home at that time. They were under the rule of the roman kingdom, then the roman republic and then later after that the roman empire became part of the roman military.
Pre-Marian(reforms)weapons and Armor
The legionnaires had to carry every thing they needed including all the tools. It took several centuries before Rome became a vast empire. Rome’s vast machines dominated that time. At the early years of Rome, soldiers had to provide and make their own equipment. The Roman soldiers or the Legionnaires had to make sure that they could support themselves during wars when they are injured. For the weapons the legionnaires had to use a pilum (javelin), a gladius (short sword), a pugio (dagger), and also a scutum (as shield). There were also many types of armor legionnaires wore outside of Italy legionnaires wore different things as the legionnaires inside of Italy. Legionnaires outside of Italy used spatha (long swords) and they often wore chain mails. Legionnaires got their freedom at the end of their term, when they finish their contract of being a soldier. Then you will be paid much, treated well and you can live with your familyThe Legionnaires were mostly equipped like Principes (Montefortino Helmet, Chainmail, Oval Scutum) until about 50 AD, when Lorica Segmentata and the likes came in favour (though they never replaced the chainmail, which was just cheaper and gave about the same amount of protection).
Legionnaire testudo formation
Pre-Marian(reform) Roman units
Were a class of infantry in the armies of the early Roman Republic who originally fought as spearmen and later as swordsmen. They were originally some of the poorest men in the legion, and could afford only modest equipment — light armour and a large shield, in their service as the lighter infantry of the legion. Later, the hastati contained the younger men rather than just the poorer, though most men of their age were relatively poor. Their usual position was the first battle line. They fought in a quincux formation, supported by light troops. They were eventually done away with after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
Were spearmen, and later swordsmen, in the armies of the early Roman Republic. They were men in the prime of their lives who were fairly wealthy, and could afford decent equipment. They were the heavier infantry of the legion who carried large shields and wore good quality armour.Their usual position was the second battle line. They fought in quincux formation, supported by light troops. They were eventually done away with after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
Were one of the elements of the early Roman military Manipular legions of the early Roman Republic (509 BC – 107 BC). They were the oldest and among the wealthiest men in the army, and could afford good quality equipment. They wore heavy metal armour and carried large shields, their usual position being the third battle line.During the Camillan era, they fought in a shallow phalanx formation, supported by light troops. In most battles triarii were not used because the lighter troops usually defeated the enemy before the triarii were committed to the battle. They were meant to be used as a decisive force in the battle, thus prompting an old Roman saying: 'Going to the triarii' (res ad triarios venit), which meant carrying on to the bitter end. They were eventually phased out after the Marian reforms of 107 BC.
The Sardinians were an ancient indo-european people settled here since prehistorical age, with a strong local Nuragic culture and various influences from the etruscans, ligurians, iberians, and early "sea people" settlers as the eastern Shardana which left their name to the whole island during the bronze age, and a later strong mycenanean influence.These archers were versatile and skilled infantrymen, good ambushers, highly accurate, well-protected with a chainmail-like protection and an liguro-etruscan old-style horned helmet. They were good swordsmen, fightning with a gladius on close contact, and were probably the best renowned mercenary archers in the part of the mediterranean, rivalling with the cretans.They were also part of Carthaginian army where they fought as mercenaryes.
Recruits are to be taught the art of throwing stones both with the hand and sling.Soldiers, not withstanding their defensive armour, are often more annoyed by the round stones from the sling than by all the arrows of the enemy. Stones kill without mangling the body, and the contusion is mortal without loss of blood. It is universally known the ancients employed slingers in all their engagements. There is the greater reason for instructing all troops, without exception, in this exercise, as the sling cannot be reckoned any encumbrance, and often is of the greatest service, especially when they are obliged to engage in stony places, to defend a mountain or an eminence, or to repulse an enemy at the attack of a castle or city.
Were a class of infantry in the Polybian legions of the early Roman republic. Velites were light infantry and skirmishes who were armed with a number of light javelins, or hastae velitares, to fling at the enemy, and also carried short thrusting swords, or gladii for use in melee. They rarely wore armour, as they were the youngest and poorest soldiers in the legion and could not afford much equipment. They did carry small wooden shields for protection though, and wore a headdress made from wolf skin to allow officers to differentiate between them and other heavier legionaries.They were normally the ones who engaged war elephants and chariots if they were present on the field; their high mobility and ranged weaponry made them much more effective against these enemies than heavy infantry. An early Roman legion contained approximately 1,000 velites. Velites were eventually done away with after the Marian reforms.
Roman levy skirmishes
Post Marian(reform)Roman units
Auxilian archers in the roman army were from Syria and Crete
Historically, the organization of the legion began to change at the end of the 2nd century BC and in the early 1st century BC all but the heavy infantry had disappeared. The Hastati, Principes and Triarii were now all equipped in the same manner and only their names remained. Three of their maniples, each increased in size to 160 men, now formed one cohort, the new main tactical unit of the Roman infantry, besides the now 80 men strong centuria. However, in most times the late republican legions did not reach their theoretical strength, and around 400 men per cohort was far more common. These changes offered much more tactical flexibility to the legion. Instead of being limited to a three line battle formation, the soldiers could be positioned as easily in one, two, or even more lines. A cohort was big enough to operate separated from the main army, to perform smaller tasks independently.
General's guard cavalry
They were an elite recruitment of Italians (Roman citizens and Latins). The emperors also often employed a small separate unit of bodyguards, distinct from and, in a degree, as a counterbalance to the Praetorian Guard.It was a habit of many Roman generals to choose from the ranks a private force of soldiers to act as guards of the tent or the person. They consisted of both infantry and cavalry!
Heavy Praetorian guard
Romans use dogs!...Especially in their campaign in Britania!
NOTE-If you want you can make Legions like in Roma Surrectum II...I don't know any different unit type for the post marian reforms!
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