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Thread: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

  1. #451
    COYATOYPIKC Senior Member Flatout Minigame Champion Arjos's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Calling it Strait of Messana is perfectly fine. Generally ancient texts just speak of "The Strait", but in connection to Skylla and Kharybdis...

  2. #452
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Ok thanks. I'll just leave it as straits of Messene then

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  3. #453
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Yay, new page!

  4. #454
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Guys could you help me out here @Arjos @Kull: I have no idea what Carthaginians is in ancient Greek. I have looked in the description for Carthage and it just has them as 'Carthaginians.' Do you guys know what it is? If not can I just call them Carthaginians...(yep I'm that lazy) I could always call them poeni if you would like but I'll leave that up to you...

  5. #455
    Vir Militaris Member
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Karchedonikoi, I believe.
    It began on seven hills - an EB 1.1 Romani AAR with historical house-rules (now ceased)
    Heirs to Lysimachos - an EB 1.1 Epeiros-as-Pergamon AAR with semi-historical houserules (now ceased)
    Philetairos' Gift - a second EB 1.1 Epeiros-as-Pergamon AAR

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  6. #456
    COYATOYPIKC Senior Member Flatout Minigame Champion Arjos's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    More precisely it is Karkhedonioi ;)

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  7. #457
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Great, thanks guys

  8. #458
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Hi guys, I know I have not been particularly active lately but I have just been absolutely swamped with work! Here is the (hopefully) much anticipated province description for Elimya. Any feedback and constructive comments are welcome, although try not to be too brutal! I have finished Trinakrie as well, so expect that soonish. I have not had a chance to finish Sikelia yet and I am afraid the earliest I will be able to do that by is the end of october, but hopefully this should be enough for now. Again, thank you guys so much and I hope you enjoy!

    Traveller's Log:

    Upon stepping ashore the traveller finds himself in a state of complete bewilderment as he is struck by the awe-inspiring vista in front of him. The lush green flats of the sickle shaped peninsula, rumoured to have been created by the harvest goddess herself while searching fruitlessly for her beloved Persephone, rise up to the undulating hills that makes up so much of this alluring land. The traveller may venture along the coast and witness the bustle of great cities, teeming with merchants selling the luxuries of Africa. As he ventures inland he is suddenly overcome by the natural beauty of the flora. Fields of valeria, borage and wisteria stretch for miles, blanketing the landscape in a thin quilt of lilac, pink and blue. Great oaks and chestnuts stand alone in fields of saffron stained grass, baked by the heat of the Mediterranean sun. Further north great confierous forests flourish at the foot of mountains, their numbers so vast that they would surpass the copious hoard commanded by the great king Xerxes four to one. They all rely on the cool waters of the rivers and lakes that litter the landscape like gems in the rock; they provide relief for plant and animal alike. To the west looms the great Mount Eryx, where Aeneas himself sought the wisdom of the gods. This mountain has always watched over the people of Elimya, the only constant in the surging and ever changing tides of war. Now the hills shake with the sounds of hooves and cries of men. Pyrhhos, soldier-king of Epeiros has finally left these shores but in his wake comes a new threat. The Karkhedonioi, safe in their stronghold of Lilibeo now seek to reclaim the land that was taken from them. To the north, the lumbering war machine of Rome continues to push southward, crushing all those who stand in their way. The time has come for the men of Elimya to take up arms and choose whose side they will fight for in the upcoming struggle, or face annihilation.

    Geography:

    The region of Elimya roughly incorporates the modern day Sicilian regions of Trapani, Agrigento, Palermo and parts of Caltanissetta. Elimya is the largest province in Sicily, stretching from the western tip of Sicily all the way to the Salso River. The terrain has few flat areas, mainly consisting of rising hills, however most of the land lies below 1000m, with the sole exceptions being the mountains: Sparagio at 1,110m and Inici at 1,065m, which rise above the rest and overlook the sloping grassland as it fades into the sea. The westernmost tip of Elmiya is a sickle shaped peninsula that in pre-historic times was a cluster of rocks and islands until the were eventually forged into the strip of land that humans have come to know. The area around what was Lilibeo (now modern day Marsala) is famed for its rich red soil, which produces some of the finest wine in the world both now and in Roman times. The inland reaches of the region were much more rugged, therefore the majority of the population lived in cities on the coast. The Elymoi took to fishing due to the abundance of fish living in the coastal waters and tuna became a source of trade for the Elymoi. Archaeologists have found evidence of ancient fishing villages spanning the coastline as well as a salt refinery near Lilibeo, a luxurious trading resource in the ancient world. The landscape features many small rivers and lakes with the largest being the Birgi River. Howver, there is also a coastal lagoon called the Stagnone lagoon, which the ancient Phoenicians used as a naval base to supplement their vast trading empire.
    The climate is typical of all regions of the Mediterranean. Mild winters are short and end around February with hot summers starting around May. However, Elimya is never too hot due to the soothing sea breeze that blows in from the west. Temperatures range from around 30 degrees Celsius in the summer to around 15 degrees in winter. Elimya also receives a generous amount of rainfall due to low air pressure fronts from the sea, which promotes its lush vegetation. Its high hills and mountains also house various species of birds, which include: the Purple Heron, the Golden Eagle, the Peregrine Falcon, the Hooded Crow and the Sicilian Rock Partridge.

    People/Society and Government:

    It is hard to give a conclusive description of the inhabitants of Elimya as there were various peoples and for some so little is known. The
    earliest records of people in Elimya were the Sikanoi, who were thought to have originated from the Iberina peninsula. However, Timaeus of Tauromenium considered them as an aboriginal people, it is simply not known. Archaelogical excavation has shown that the Sikanoi had been influenced by the ancient Mycenaens.
    The Elymoi are thought to be the next people to arrive in this region. They arrived either from the Aegean, Anatolia or Liguria and settled in the north-westernmost tip of Sicilia, pushing the Sikanoi further inland. Nothing is known of them apart from that they seemed to adopt Hellenic culture. This can be seen mostly in their architecture that has survived, nameily the Greek temple at Segesta. The Elymoi used the Hellenic alphabet to write their own language, which has of yet still not been deciphered (for any Cryptologists that want a go!). The Elymoi lived in cities, the most important of which were Segesta (their political centre), Eyx (their religious centre) and Entella. They are represented by almost all ancient writers to be descended from the Trojans and therefore cousins to the people of Rome.
    After the emergence of the Elymoi came the Phoenicians around 800 BC. These people formed a great trading empire, consisting of cities such as Tyre, Sidon and Qart Hadasht herself, although they acted like independent city-states. The Phoenicians were famous traders (their name comes from the Greek 'phoinios' meaning purple, which referred to the famous purple cloth they traded) and sought to utilise the natural salt that could be found in the saltpans around Lilibeo (founded in 396 BC). Their alphabet was the first with a consistent form and was widely adopted around the ancient world. It seems to have been influenced by the Egyptuans, since early renditions found in the souther Levant resemble Egyptian hieroglyphics. Their art was also unfluenced by other cultures, mainly the Egyptians but also the Greeks and the Assyrians. Mainly sarcophagi and statues made of stone have survived. The Phoenicians were very religous and shared similar characteristics to all religions of the ancient Semitic world. They had a pantheon of gods, the most promient of which was Melquart, who was mainly worshiped in Tyre but also across the entire Mediterranean. The Phoenicinas (and especially the Karkhedonioi) have been accused of child sacrifice, which has come under much debate from modern historians. The foundation for this claim is through tombstones called Tophets, which were used to "burn their sons and daughters in fire" (Jeremiah 9:15). However, some historians claim that these were only used for children who had died in infancy and had been cremated. The child sacrifice was most likely Roman propaganda after the end of the Punic wars to forever slur the name of their most hated enemy.

    History:

    The region of Elimya was heavily contested and saw many different cultures and civilisations. The earliest documented people to have lived in Elimya were the Sikanoi, who have a record dating back as early as the late Iron Age (c. 1100 BC). Apart from mythology, there is nothing that can be told of the Sikanoi. They are said to be indistinguishable from the Elymoi people that superseded them. The Elymoi inhabited more of the inland part of Sicily as the coast came under Phoenician rule. What historians know is taht they maintained friendly relations with Qart Hadasht and even alliances until they sided with the Romani in the first Punic War. After Rome's victory the Elymoi were given a priveleged status and were exempt from taxation, as they claimed to be descendants of Troy and thereby related to the Romani, who themselves were descendants of Aeneas, prince of Troy. From then the Elymoi seemed to disappear under the shadow of Roman rule, never to be heard from again.
    After the emergence of the Elymoi came the Phoenicians around 800 BC. They were master seamen and Herodotus even claimed that they had circumnavigated Africa, although based on archaelogical evidence of their ships the voyage would seem difficult, but not impossible. The Phoenicians settled in the coastal regions of Sicily and traded with the Elymoi. In Elimya they found a great harbour for their powerful warships and due to the salty waters fo the lagoon, they mined and exported salt, which at the time was equal in worth to gold. The Phoenician civilisation began to decline around 539 BC, when Cyrus the Great of Persia captured Phoenicia and the Phoenicians in Sicily
    likely withdrew or were assimilated into Karkhedonioi (Carthaginian) territories.
    Qart Hadahst was founded shortly before 800 BC by Phoenician merchants from Tyre. It grew in power quickly and came to intervene in Sicilia in 480 BC in the first Sicilian War. A power struggle emerged between Ionian and Dorian Greeks. In 483 BC the Ionian Greeks, who were losing the struggle, called on the Karkhedonioi to help and they most graciously obliged, seeking an opportuniy to expand their lands. The Karkhedonioi general Hamilcar is said to hae led an expedition force of 300,000 men to Sicilia, although this is almost impossible considering Qart Hadasht at the height of its power could only muster between 50,000-100,000 men at the most. Upon landing, Hamilcar was decisively defeated at the Battle of Himear by a force from Syrakosai and Hamilicar later committed suicide. Qart Hadasht was then forced to pay the Greeks a sum of 2,000 talents and did not intervene in Sicilian politics for the next 70 years. Thus was the end of the first Sicilian War.
    In 416 BC however, the Greeks had recommenced their rivalry, this time between the Dorian city of Selinus and the Ionian city of Segesta. Selinus encroached on Segestan land and the Segestians were defeated in 416 BC. An Athenian expedition was sent to give aid to the Segestians but was crushed in 413 BC bu a join effort of various Sicilian
    cities including Syrakosai and with Spartan support. Selinus attacked and defeated Segesta again in 411 BC. This time the Segestians submitted to the Karkhedonioi for aid and a relief force was sent to Sicilia. The Karkhedonioi commander Hannibal Mago (not Barca!) captured the city of Selinus and Himera, despite Syrakosai intervening and returned to Qart Hadasht in triumph in 409 BC. However, the was to return to Sicilia in 406 BC in retaliation to Greek raids of Karkhedonioi territory and was met by fierce resistance and ill fortune. During the siege of Akagras (modern dayt Agrigento) the Karkhedonioi army was struck by plague, which killed Hannibal himself. His successor Himilco captured and sacked Akagras, Kamarina and captured the city of Gela. Qart Hadasht sued for peace and was left with all territories west of the Halycas and Himera rivers with Selinus, Thermae, Akagras, Gela and Kamarina as vassals. THis signalled the height of Karkhedonioi power in Sicilia. Years of fighting against Syrakosai would ultimately culminate into the defeat of the Karkhedonioi at the battle of the Crimissus in 341 BC and Qart Hadasht was left with all land west of the Halycas River.
    In 277 BC Pyrrhos of Eperios arrived in Italy, having been asked by the Greek Sicilians to help them repel the Karkhedonioi. Pyrrhos raised the siege of Syrakosai the same year and captured the Karkhedonioi stronghold of Eryx. The rest of the Karkhedonioi strongholds promptly defected to Pyrrhos apart from Lilibeo, which Pyrrhos was unable to take. Eventually Pyrrhos withdrew from Sicilia upon receiving news that the Romani had recommenced their advance on the Greek cities in Italy and famously foresaw the Punic Wars when he said "What a wrestling ground we are leaving, my friends, for the Carthaginians and the Romans."
    The First Punic War kicked off in 264 BC, when the Roman senate accepted a plea for help by the Mamertinoi of Messene. The majority of the conflict was fought in Sicilia; large pitched battles were rare and most of the fighting was conducted through skirmishes and sieges. In the summer of the same year the consul Appius Claudius Caudex led a military incursion across the straits and into Sicilia. After defeating a force from Syrakosai sent to besiege Messene, the Romani sought to secure their flank pby attacking Syrakosai, at that time an ally of Qart Hadasht. They laid siege to Syrakosai and with no help from the Karkhedonioi in sight, the city was forced to sue for peace. It became an ally of Rome and was forced to supply its army in the field.
    Meanwhile the Karkhedonioi were building up a sizeable army in North Africa, consisting of roughly 56,000 men and 60 elephants. The first principal conflict of the war was the Battle of Agrigentum in 261 BC. Rome had been besieging the city with four legions, the entire consular army, and the citizens of the city had managed to send for Karkhedonioi aid. The Karkhedonioi relief force, commanded by Hanno, cut off the Roman army's supply line with Syrakosai. After a few skirmishes and as supplies started to run low the Romans pushed for a set piece battle where they defeated the Karkhedonioi. In tandem with their successes on land, the Romans had also built up a powerful navy and defeated the Karkhedonioi in the battle of Mylae. A large part of their success was the implementation and use of the Corvus: a wooden bridge that would latch on to the enemy ship's deck and would be used in boarding actions, where the professional Roman soldiers would have the upper hand over their inferior Karkhedonioi counterparts.
    A brief counterattack by the Karkhedonioi, following their victory at the battle of Macella, set the Romans back temporarily. However, the next year in 258 BC the Romans continued their advance, taking the cities of Myistraton, Selinus and Segesta, as well as advancing to Panorama on the north coast. Seeking a quick end to the war, the Romans invaded the African continent and employed a crop burning
    campaign. Unfortunately for the Romans a Spartan mercenary called Xanthippus reorganised the Punic army and defeated the Romans at the battle of Tunis in 255 BC. In that fatal year a naval disaster also occurred off the coast of the city of Kamarina. Two hundred and seventy ships were lost in a single night, along with their crews totalling 100,000 men; the greatest single loss in history.
    Despite the Romans' losses they regained the initiative, constructing a new fleet and land army. Over the comign years they gradually pushed the Karkhedonioi back. taking Panormus in 251 BC and besieging Lilibeo in the same year. In spite of a renewed offensive by Hamilcar Barca in 249 BC, the Romans repelled his attacks and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Aegates Islands in 241 BC. Qart Hadasht was forced to sue for peace and in the following negotiations agreed to evacuate from Sicilia.
    Sicilia would become the first Roman province, governed by a Praetor instead of an ally and would remain under Roman rule until it was taken by the Vandals during the Western Roman Empire's collapse
    in 467 AD.

    Strategy:

    Elimya is naturally prosperous land, producing resources such as iron and sulphur, which should be utilised and traded with other factions. It occupies a key strategic position, guarding the straits of Sicilia and will make a perfect naval base that will prove vital in either a defence of or incursion into the Karkhedonioi homeland.
    Last edited by Hippo123; 10-13-2017 at 19:34.

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  9. #459
    iudex thervingiorum Member athanaric's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by Hippo123 View Post
    [...] Its high hills and mountains also house various species of birds, which include: the heron, the stalk, the golden eagle, the Peregrine falcon and the hooded crow (which is exclusive to Sicily).
    I'm too tired right now to read the entire essay, just wanted to point out that Hooded Crows are definitely not exclusive to Sicily. They can be found in most of Europe and the Middle East.
    Not sure what you mean by "stalk", that's not an official English name of any species AFAIK. Also "heron" is not a species but a family, therefore it's best used as a plural (herons) without the definite article in this context (unless you want to point out a particular species; there are several in the region).




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  10. #460
    EBII Council Senior Member Kull's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by athanaric View Post
    Not sure what you mean by "stalk", that's not an official English name of any species AFAIK.
    I'm sure he meant "stork". That's a case where spellcheck is NOT your friend!

    Edit: I see he already made the bird fixes, so I'll go ahead and plug this into the build. It will be part of v2.3

    @Hippo123 - Speaking of which, I highly recommend that you add the "spellcheck" plugin for Notepad++, as it will greatly improve the quality of your text.
    Last edited by Kull; 09-26-2017 at 19:04.
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  11. #461
    iudex thervingiorum Member athanaric's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by Kull View Post
    I'm sure he meant "stork". That's a case where spellcheck is NOT your friend!

    Edit: I see he already made the bird fixes, so I'll go ahead and plug this into the build. It will be part of v2.3
    Yes, it's much better now




    Swêboz guide for EB 1.2
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  12. #462
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by Kull View Post

    @Hippo123 - Speaking of which, I highly recommend that you add the "spellcheck" plugin for Notepad++, as it will greatly improve the quality of your text.
    Sure will do, thanks. And thanks athanaric for pointing that out btw

  13. #463
    EBII Council Senior Member Kull's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Hippo123 View Post
    Here is the (hopefully) much anticipated province description for Elimya. Any feedback and constructive comments are welcome, although try not to be too brutal!
    @Hippo123 - I have to hand it to you, this description did something that no other text file in the history of M2TW has ever done - it was so long that after adding it to the dev build, it caused CTDs in custom battles. Since there is absolutely no obvious connection between province descriptions and custom battles (neither one seemingly has anything to do with the other), it took a while to track down the link. Not your fault...who knew?

    Anyway, please try and keep them down to about 9K characters (this one was 16.5k). You can get a character count from Notepad++ by highlighting the text and then selecting View>Summary... (the character count of the highlighted section will be at the bottom of the second paragraph in the pop-up box)
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  14. #464
    Member Member mephiston's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Hello all!

    I'm a long time lurker on this forum; I used to play EB1 and now, after a long hiatus, I got interested in EB2. I think the best way to show my appreciation for the fantastic work that you all team members are doing is trying to help you as much as I can.

    Hoping that the map is still not outdated, I'd like to volunteer for Liguria. Depending on what's missing, at the same time I can also take a look at the other dark green regions in Italia. Probably this is going to take some time, but in the future I may also work on the regions roughly corresponding to the modern Netherlands and the Franche-Comté.

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  15. #465
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    That's a shame, because the one for Trinakrie is 17990 atm!

  16. #466
    EBII Council Senior Member Kull's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Hippo123 View Post
    That's a shame, because the one for Trinakrie is 17990 atm!
    Actually your descriptions weren't the biggest. The one for Lakonike had over 55K characters!! The problem is that we have tools which combine a number of different xml format building files into a single export_buildings.txt.strings.bin file, to include special formatting and other features. But apparently there's some limit to export_buildings.txt (just above 11,150KB) which keeps the tool from working properly and - for some unknown reason - results in custom battle CTDs.

    Anyway, we've made some major cuts in a few of the descriptions to get the whole file down to 11,000KB, and are imposing a limit of 10KB characters on new descriptions to keep the problem from cropping up again. Ultimately we'll have to find a long term solution, but you can help by editing your new descriptions down to the target level (I've already done that to Elimya).
    Last edited by Kull; 10-08-2017 at 19:33.
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  17. #467
    EBII Council Senior Member Kull's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by mephiston View Post
    Hello all!

    I'm a long time lurker on this forum; I used to play EB1 and now, after a long hiatus, I got interested in EB2. I think the best way to show my appreciation for the fantastic work that you all team members are doing is trying to help you as much as I can.

    Hoping that the map is still not outdated, I'd like to volunteer for Liguria. Depending on what's missing, at the same time I can also take a look at the other dark green regions in Italia. Probably this is going to take some time, but in the future I may also work on the regions roughly corresponding to the modern Netherlands and the Franche-Comté.
    Liguria would be a great place to start, as it's the only one in Italy currently bereft of a good description. The map isn't completely up-to-date (a bunch of new ones have been added for the Adriatic and Gallic provinces, among others), so please let me know before you start any new ones, so I can confirm that they are "undone". Thanks!
    "Numidia Delenda Est!"

  18. #468
    Member Member mephiston's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by Kull View Post
    Liguria would be a great place to start, as it's the only one in Italy currently bereft of a good description. The map isn't completely up-to-date (a bunch of new ones have been added for the Adriatic and Gallic provinces, among others), so please let me know before you start any new ones, so I can confirm that they are "undone". Thanks!
    Sure thing. Thanks for the informations. I'm halfway through the source collection (trying to use original Greek and Latin texts whenever possible) so it's not improbable that in mid-week Liguria may be ready.

    Do I have to format the text according to .xml standards (all the <h><\h> and <p><\p> stuff)? And for italic, assuming I can use it, I have to use just <i><\i>?

    Cheers!

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  19. #469
    EBII Council Senior Member Kull's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by mephiston View Post
    Sure thing. Thanks for the informations. I'm halfway through the source collection (trying to use original Greek and Latin texts whenever possible) so it's not improbable that in mid-week Liguria may be ready.

    Do I have to format the text according to .xml standards (all the <h><\h> and <p><\p> stuff)? And for italic, assuming I can use it, I have to use just <i><\i>?

    Cheers!
    That sounds great! And don't worry, I'll shift the text into our xml formats (that's actually part of the process I follow when proofing these things, paragraph by paragraph). Just make sure you develop the text using Notepad++. Thanks!
    "Numidia Delenda Est!"

  20. #470
    Member Member mephiston's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    There's one small mistake that I spotted in the Geography paragraph of Elimya.

    The region of Elimya roughly incorporates the modern day Sicilian regions of Trapano, Agrigento, Palermo and parts of Caltanissetta.
    The modern city is called Trapani and not Trapano. Furthermore, these that are cited are provinces and not regions (there's only one region which is the whole island).

  21. #471
    Member Member mephiston's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Here is what I concieved for Liguria. Just slightly above 10k characters.

    I tried to stay consistent with names (mostly Latin: Ligures, Arnus, Macra, Roma... But with distinction between U and V: fairly easy to change anyway). In some cases I didn't know what to do (Greeks, Etruscans) because I don't know the other descriptions, and so I left the English version for the moment.

    I hope I got the atmosphere of the Traveller's Log right. If you have any comments or thoughts please share!


    Regional description: Liguria


    Traveller's Log

    Rarely can the traveller see such a diversity in landscape as one can find in Liguria. It is easy to be captured by the vast sea, twinkling quiet under the sunrays or roaring of anger in the outburst of rage of a storm, capricious as a woman; it is pleasant to follow the line of the jagged coast to unveil all the small, secret and quiet inlets and be refreshed by the sound of small waves wetting the water edge. Nonetheless, this is only a face of the medal. The other, specular spirit of Liguria needs to be chased through the arduous mountain trails, crossing the myriad of passes that lock each valley from the rest of the world; it needs to be felt in the dark, ferine forests that cloak all kinds of birds, reptiles and mammals; it needs to be breathed when on top of the mountains, while spanning all the green sea below and following the contorted shape of its surface, be it for the subtle erosion of rivers or the howling power of the wind. Then can the traveller understand the deep love that each Ligurian, as hard as the stone of the mountains, as rough as the rocky soil, as dignified as a straight trunk, feels for his rugged, harsh but splendid land.

    Geography

    Liguria has an almost exact correspondence to the ninth district of Italy as created by Augustus, which is slightly larger than both the territory of the former Repubblica di Genova and the modern Italian region. Its boundaries, as described by Pliny the Elder, were three rivers: the Varus to the west, the Po to the north and the Macra to the east. The borders with Etruria are pushed a bit southwards, almost reaching the Arnus, due to the strong military presence of Ligurian tribes in the close proximities.
    Most of the land is covered by mountains, be they part of the Alpes or the Apenninus, many of which can reach a considerable height. Near the sea is frequent to see cliffs just above the water, and even if somewhere the abruptous changes in height are tempered by hills, coasts are usually narrow lines between high ground and water; marshes are found only near major rivers such as Macra or Arnus. Due to the height of mountains, clouds tend to stack on them, giving birth to frequent rainfalls and therefore providing sustenance to the vast and dense forests of beeches and firs that cover most of the space. Lots of rivers and streams contribute in shaping the territory, deepening the already narrow valleys. It is indeed arduous to farm enough supplies for more than a handful of humans; and this is the reason why olive trees and grapevines, despite being present, do not certainly flourish. Instead locals rely mainly on fishing the abundant patches of medium and large sized fishes and mollusks; hunting the substantial amount of game, particularly boars, is another profitable activity because of meat and skins. Herdables are fairly common as well. Mountains can be also an invaluable resource to clever miners, because small veins of metals and, most importantly, large quantities of marble can be extracted. Particularly renowned are the marbles coming from Carrara, whose name is said to be derived from ancient Ligurian "Kar", stone. Towards the Po river morphology is much more even, and for this reason an intensive agriculture can be performed.
    Climate is temperate; the proximity with the sea mitigates winters, although snow is a common occurrence above a certain height, and this contributes to the proverbial image of Liguria as inhospitable and hostile as much as its inhabitants.

    People, Society, and Government

    Archaeological findings in Liguria witness human presence up to about 300 000 years ago; since the Neolithic Age the predominant ethnic group was that of the Ligures. The first author citing the existence of Ligures is said to be Hesiod, but even Livius refers to the Ligures tribe of the Laevi as one of the oldest group of settlers in the Po basin.
    The origins of Ligures is still debated. As of now, the Pre-Indo-European hypothesis has gained more consensus than the Indo-European counterpart; if this is the truth, we should believe that three subsequent migrations have reached the already settled Ligures, shaping them in first instance into a Proto-Indo-European population (3rd millennium BC) and then causing them to absorb Proto-Celtic and Celtic elements, such as the use of the torque (2nd - 1st millennium BC).
    Ligures were never a unified population, and in fact they were spread in a plethora of different tribes. Their presence was attested since the 2nd millennium BC in most of the coastal provinces of Western Europe; as time passed, however, they shrinked under the pressure of the Celtic and Italic migrations, until they were confined into the borders of Liguria. Among the most important tribes settled in this region we can remember the Laevi, the Taurini, the Segobrigi (who were credited by the Greeks of having favoured the founding of Massalia), the Salluvi, Deciates and Oxubii.
    As a consequence of their decentralization, it was rare to see oppida or proper cities built by Ligures, while small fortified villages were more common. Each tribe used to forge its alliances on its own, often in contrast with other neighbouring tribes; they seldom formed mutual alliances in the form of "conciliabula" (tribal confederations), and usually they were short-lived.
    The warlike nature of Ligures finds its roots in the intrinsic poverty of the people. The harsh conditions in which Ligures had to farm was even worth a mention by Cicero in his "De Lege Agraria" ("Ligures duri atque agrestes"); Diodoros Siculos maintained that women were accustomed to work alongside men for all but the heaviest duties. The organization inside each tribe was highly egalitarian, and despite the presence of a certain degree of hierarchy the kings were usually elected: only in the late period a dynastic succession appeared.
    Few evidences of Ligurian religion can be found. Traces of megalithic heritage are evident in the spread of statue menhirs, sculpted in resemblance of armed warriors or women; their presence and placement (usually collected in sacred sites or, in the later period, placed upon tombs) in Lunigiana since the Bronze Age suggests that probably there was some sort of cult of heroic ancestors or protective deities. The same style of iconography is found in several cave paintings. Another important symbol was the swan, recurrent in many shamanic cults, of which we can find a trace even in the Aeneid.

    History

    Since late Bronze Age, the placement of Liguria allowed Ligures to control both maritime and land commercial routes from and to Gaul. The vast spread of the Ligures in the Western Mediterranean favoured contacts with two major commercial powers, the Greeks and the Etruscans. Both of them, while being commercial partners, were potential enemies as well: the Greeks were happy with founding Massalia, but the Etruscans kept on pushing on land, and forced the Ligures to fall back on the mountains. By the 5th century BC the Ligures were confined to a small montainous territory, but also the power of Etruscans in Northern Italy was fading, replaced by a stronger Celtic presence; this made Genua, the main oppidum of Ligures, the reference point for commerce of timber in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
    However, as the 3rd century BC approached, Liguria had to face the rising power of Roma, who had assimilated Etruscan lands. Initially Romans tried to ally with Ligures, but due to the lack of central administration tribes did not pursue a common agenda, and as a result the majority of them remained hostile. This became evident when Hannibal came to Italy in 218 BC. While tribes from the Po basin (such as the Taurini) and Genua were loyal to the Romans, many of the Apuani and other mountain clans followed the Punic army as mercenaries. With the defeat of Hannibal in 202 BC Roma was able to gain control of most Ligurian territories at sea level, such as the port of Savo (nowadays Savona), but the mountains remained untouched.
    From 197 to 155 BC Ligurian resistance kept Romans at bay. The employment of guerrilla tactics, favoured by the rough conformation of the territory, allowed Ligures to avoid direct confrontation with organized armies. During the whole conflict Romans suffered at least two serious defeats: in 189 BC the praetor L. Baebius Dives was ambushed while on his way to Hispania Ulterior and slain with all of his men, and in 186 BC a Roman army was lured and decimated in the Macra valley. Ligurians managed also to raze important colonies such as Placentia and Mutina. On their part however Romans were able to celebrate at least fifteen triumphs. One remarkable feat by consul M. Baebius Tamphilus in 180 BC was marching against the Apuani and managing to capture over 40 000 of them by surprise. The prisoners were then deported to Samnium and (according to Livius) Baebius celebrated the first triumph "nullo bello gesto" (without waging war) in the history of Roma. New colonies such as Lucca (180 BC) and Luni (177 BC) allowed Roma to gain stable footholds in Ligurian lands; one by one the rebellious tribes were tamed. During the second half of the 2nd century BC and the 1st century BC the province became increasingly Romanized and Ligures were regularly employed as auxiliaries in Roman armies.
    While most historians and intellectuals of the time at best ignored Liguria (such as Strabo) and at worst openly despised its inhabitants (such as Cato the Elder), things changed as soon as Ligures became integrated in Roman society: for example, Virgil celebrated the courage of the Ligures who came to the aid of Aeneas against Turnus. It is frankly amazing that in the 13th century the Ligurian author Jacopo da Varagine, archbishop in Genova, claimed that the city was founded by Janus, a Trojan captain and friend of Aeneas.

    Strategy

    Liguria is in a key position: as it was in history, whoever controls these lands controls the commercial (and military) route from and to Gaul. The northern mountain passes provide also an alternative way into the Po basin that bypasses Felsina. The easy access to the sea across the whole province and the profitable amount of available trading resources, along with its unique position, make Liguria one of the most suited provinces in Italia for favouring outwards expansion. Be aware of the fierceness of the Ligures, though!

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  22. #472
    Member Member mephiston's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Sorry for the double post; now it's fixed.

    By the way, now that I'm done with Liguria I can move on to the rest of Italy.

    Quote Originally Posted by Kull
    The map isn't completely up-to-date (a bunch of new ones have been added for the Adriatic and Gallic provinces, among others), so please let me know before you start any new ones, so I can confirm that they are "undone".
    I can work on what's missing; just let me know what needs revision/implementation/enhancement, and I'll gather up my slaves and prepare my whip.


    Cheers!
    Last edited by mephiston; 10-10-2017 at 16:32. Reason: double post

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  23. #473
    Arrogant Ashigaru Moderator Ludens's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by mephiston View Post
    Sorry for the double post; now it's fixed.
    Actually, that was due a technical issue on our end. Apologies for that.

  24. #474
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Sorry my bad, I know it's supposed to be Trapani. Just a typo...

  25. #475
    Member Member mephiston's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Yes, no problem: I guessed it was just a typo.

    How is your work on Trinakrie going?
    And do you have comments or suggestions on Liguria?

  26. #476
    Member Member Hippo123's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Trinakrie is nearly finished, although due to the new word limit I guess I'll have to cut it down substantially :( - @Kull

    Unfortunately I am no budding historian or writer, but I think the description looks really good!
    Last edited by Hippo123; Yesterday at 11:24.

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  27. #477
    EBII Council Senior Member Kull's Avatar
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    Default Re: Regional Descriptions: Help the EBII Team

    Quote Originally Posted by Hippo123 View Post
    Trinakrie is nearly finished, although due to the new world limit I guess I'll have to cut it down substantially :( - @Kull

    Unfortunately I am no budding historian or writer, but I think the description looks really good!
    Seriously, we do appreciate your efforts on this.
    "Numidia Delenda Est!"

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