Mediterranean Total War- the SAMNITES (our 1st preview)
Samnite Faction Preview
Samnium was a region south of the Apennines in ancient Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from around 600 BC to around 290 BC.
The Samnites were composed of four tribes: the Pentri, the Caraceni, the Caudini and the Hirpini, and later the Frentani may have joined. The Samnites and Romans weren’t exactly allies, as they had three wars with them: “The Samnite Wars”. But they fought side by side against the Latin League though
The Latin leaque was an alliance between Rome and the cother cities of Latium to secure safety against the Etruscan, but this leaque was later destroyed by Rome and the Samnites.
The First Samnite War
For centuries the Sabellic highlander tribes of the Apennines had struggled to force their way into the plains between the hills and the Mediterranean. They were been kept at bay by Latins and Tuscan though and of their expansion hasn’t been on Latium but east and south-east. They had begun to stream into Campania. The most powerful group of the highlanders, the Samnite confederation, were in the middle of the fourth century, swarming down upon their civilized neighbours in Campania, as, farther east and south, Lucanians and Bruttians were agressing upon the Greek colonies in Magna Greacia. In effect the semi-civilized were hammering the over-civilized. The Greeks were asking for help to Epirus; those on the plains, the Campanians, asked for help to Rome and Rome agreed. War between Rome and the Samnites followed, the First Samnite War.
The war lasted two years, ending in 341bc with Rome triumphant and the Samnites willing to make peace.
The war was ended by a hasty peace, owing to the revolt of Rome's Latin allies who resented their dependence on the dominant city. In effect, the Romans deserted the Campanians. They had forced the members of the Latin League into the Samnite War without consulting them.
Despite its brevity the First Samnite War resulted in the major acquisition to the Roman state of the rich land of Campania with it’s capital Capua. During the fights between the Samnites and Campanians in Capua, Campania allied with Rome. Wich resulted in Rome subdeuing. Campania was a major addition to Rome's power.
The Second Samnite War
In 327, war broke out again between Samnites on Campania's plain. Again people of the plain sought Rome's assistance, and Rome went to war against the Samnites.
The Romans soon confronted the Samnites in the middle of the Liris river valley, starting the Second, or Great, Samnite War, which lasted twenty years. During the first half of the war Rome suffered serious defeats, but later Rome saw it’s recovery, reorganization, and ultimate victory.
At first the Roman armies were so successful that in 321 BC the Samnites sued for peace. But the terms offered were so stringent that they were rejected and the war went on.
In the same year, the two consuls, leading an invading force into Samnium, were trapped in a mountain pass known as the Caudine Forks where they, after a desperate struggle would have been annihilated if they had not submitted to the terms imposed by the Samnite victor Pontius. Six hundred Equites had to be handed over as hostages. Meanwhile the captive consuls pledged themselves to a five-year treaty on the most favourable terms for the Samnites. The war stalled for five years. And, as Rome waited for the war to resume, it strengthened its military by increasing recruitment.
In 320 and 319, the Romans returned for vengeance against the Samnites and defeated them. Until 314 BC, success seemed to flow with the Samnites. Campania was about to desert Rome. Peace was established between Rome and some of the Samnite towns. Then the tide turned in 311bc, when the Samnites were joined by Etruscan cities that had decided to join an alliance against Roman power. The Romans continuously defeated both their enemies. The war became a struggle for the dominance of a big part of Italy. Between 311bc and 304bc, the Romans and it’s allies won a series of battles against the Etruscans and the Samnites. In 308 BC the Etruscans sued for peace which was granted on severe terms and in 304 BC the Samnites obtained peace on terms probably severe but not humiliating. The peace between the Romans and Samnites remained until 298bc.
Ancient sources state that Rome initially adopted hoplite tactics from the Etruscans (used during the 6th or 5th century BC by the Camillan Roman army fe: the early Triarii) but later adopted the manipular system from the Samnites, probably as a result of Samnite success at this time. The manipular formation was a checkerboard pattern, in which squares of soldiers were separated by empty square spaces. It was more flexible than the hoplite formation, allowing the army to maneuver better on rugged terrain (wich was needed in Italy as the Romans felt the pain of using their early “Hoplite” Triarii in the field .
During the period 334-295 BC, Rome founded 13 colonies against the Samnites and created six new tribes in annexed territory. During the last years of the war, the Romans also extended their power into northern Etruria and Umbria. Several campaigns forced them to become Rome's allies.
The Third Samnite War
The Samnites tried to thwart Roman domination of Italy again in 298bc. The Third Samnite War was the last desperate attempt of the Samnites to remain independent. They persuaded the Etruscans, Umbrians, and various Cilaspine Gauls to join them.
When the Romans saw the Etruscans and Gauls in northern Italy joining the Samnites they were alarmed.Now Rome faced all her enemies at once.
Some relief came with a victory over the Samnites in the south, but the crucial battle for Italy took place in 295bc at Sentinum in Umbria.The Romans benefited from their military discipline, the quality of their legions, and their military leadership.
Nevertheless, the Samnites fought on until a final defeat in 291 BC made further resistance hopeless, and in the following year peace was made on more favourable terms for the Samnites than Rome would have granted.
Roman military colonies were settled in Campania as well as on the eastern outskirts of Samnium.
After Rome's great victory at Sentinum, the war slowlycame to an end nad came to an end in 282bc. Rome emerged dominating all of the Italian peninsula except for the Greek cities in Italy's extreme south and the Po valley -- the Po valley was still being occupied by Cilaspine Gauls.
The guards of the Samnite family members in the game.
These were the elite warriors of the Samnite confederation.
- Samnite Cavalry
Samnites made extensive use of light cavalry it seems, on many sculptures etc. we can see soldiers in typical Samnite equipment carrying javelins on horseback.
- Samnite Skirmishers
The typical Samnite skirmishers carried javelins, a spear and the usual Samnite equipment, note that there is a swastika on their tunic and shield, we do not wish to offend anyone, but this was a respected sign for the ancients.
- Samnite Spearmen
Spearmen were also used a lot by the Samnites, they (as all other soldiers) dressed in
Typical Samnite equipment (shield, colours, helmet) and carried a pretty long spear.
- Samnite Equites
Litteraly meaning Samnite horsemen these men are equipped in typical Samnite equipment and carried a spear.
- Volscan Warriors
These men(known as the Volsci) have long been opponents of Roma, and occupied southern Latium, their chief city was Suessa, although they lived in small villages. They produced formidable warriors in a later Latin fashion.
- Sabine Warriors
The Sabine tribe, a tribe from ancient Italy, produced great warriors, equipped in typical Italian fashion and carried javelins.
- Tarantine Hoplitai
Hoplites from the Greek colony of Taras (Tarentum) in Magna Graecia
- Tarantine Cavalry(heavy)
As seen on various coins from the Greek colony of Taras, they made use of light cavalry, armed with a heavy spear and a couple of javelins, a shield and well armoured, these were fine cavalrists.
- Campanian Hoplitai
Hoplites from the Samnites’ rival, Campania, equipped in Italian fashion with Greek influences.
- Croton Hoplitai
Hoplites from the Greek colony of Croton, wich lays to the south of Samnium.
- Italiot Hoplitai
Men from the other Greek colonies in Italy, equipped in a similar way to their Greek neighbours on the Greek mainland.
- Levy Hoplitai
Levy hoplites from the Greek colonies in Magna Graecia
- Italian Tribal Psiloi
Men recruited from various tribes of Italy acting as “Psiloi”, light inf.
- Samnite Light Cavalry
A lower class of the Samnite cavalry, carrying javelins. (AOR in Samnite provinces)
- Samnite levies
Men from the tribes picking up arms to defend their territory.(AOR in Samnite provinces)
- Hirpini Warriors
The Hirpini tribe was one of the Sabellic tribes who together with other tribes formed the Samnite confederacy.
Models by Caius Brittanicus, Dark Fenrir and me
Skins, Caius Britannicus, Dark Fenrir, myself, and unit cards by me
Research and putting it together by Dionysios II The Great
Special thanks to the entire RTR team.
That was all for this preview, the team hopes you enjoy it and if there are any updates about the Samnites, we’ll post it here.
Re: Mediterranean Total War- the SAMNITES (our 1st preview)
Hello Trevorusn, welcome to the .Org .
I had to look it up, but it seems this modification was never completed (the thread you've resurrected is five years old). Feel free to browse the hosted mod forums to see if there are other projects that interest you.